Part 1, Chapter 4

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With the deep, unconscious sigh 定语从句which not even the nearness of the telescreen could prevent him from uttering 时间从句when his day’s work started, Winston pulled the speakwrite towards him, blew the dust from its mouthpiece, and put on his spectacles. Then he unrolled and clipped together four small cylinders of paper 定语从句which had already flopped out of the pneumatic tube on the right-hand side of his desk.

In the walls of the cubicle there were three orifices. To the right of the speakwrite, a small pneumatic tube for written messages, to the left, a larger one for newspapers; and in the side wall, within easy reach of Winston’s arm, a large oblong slit protected by a wire grating. This last was for the disposal of waste paper. Similar slits existed in thousands or tens of thousands throughout the building, not only in every room but at short intervals in every corridor. For some reason they were nicknamed memory holes. 时间从句When one knew that any document was due for destruction, or even when one saw a scrap of waste paper lying about, it was an automatic action to lift the flap of the nearest memory hole and drop it in, whereupon it would be whirled away on a current of warm air to the enormous furnaces 定语从句which were hidden somewhere in the recesses of the building.

Winston examined the four slips of paper 定语从句which he had unrolled. Each contained a message of only one or two lines, in the abbreviated jargon — not actually Newspeak, but consisting largely of Newspeak words — 定语从句which was used in the Ministry for internal purposes. They ran:

times 17.3.84 bb speech malreported africa rectify

times 19.12.83 forecasts 3 yp 4th quarter 83 misprints verify current issue

times 14.2.84 miniplenty malquoted chocolate rectify

times 3.12.83 reporting bb dayorder doubleplusungood refs unpersons rewrite fullwise upsub antefiling

With a faint feeling of satisfaction Winston laid the fourth message aside. It was an intricate and responsible job and had better be dealt with last. The other three were routine matters, though the second one would probably mean some tedious wading through lists of figures.

温斯顿不自觉地深深地叹了一口气,把听写器拉了过来,吹掉话筒上的尘土,戴上了眼镜。即使电幕近在旁边,也阻止不了他在每天开始工作的时候叹这口气。接着他把已经从办公桌右边气力输送管中送出来的四小卷纸打了开来,夹在一起。

  在他的小办公室的墙上有三个口子。听写器右边的一个小口是送书面指示的气力输送管;左边大一些的口子是送报纸的;旁边墙上温斯顿伸手可及的地方有一个椭圆形的大口子,上面蒙着铁丝网,这是供处理废纸用的。整个大楼里到处都有这样的口子,为数成千上万,不仅每间屋子里都有,而且每条过道上相隔不远就有一个。这种口子外号叫忘怀洞。这样叫不无理由。凡是你想起有什么文件应该销毁,甚至你看到什么地方有一张废纸的时候,你就会顺手掀起近旁忘怀洞的盖子,把那文件或废纸丢进去,让一股暖和的气流把它吹卷到大楼下面不知什么地方的大锅炉中去烧掉。

  温斯顿看了一下他打开的四张纸条。每张纸条上都写着一两行字的指示,用的是部里内部使用的缩写——不完全是新话,不过大部分是新话的辞汇构成的。它们是:

  泰晤士报17.3.84老大讲话误报非洲核正

  泰晤士报19.12.83预测三年计划83年四季度排错核正近期

  泰晤士报14.2.84富部误引巧克力核正

  泰晤士报3.12.83报道老大命令双加不好提到非人全部重写存档前上交

  温斯顿把第四项指示放在一旁,心中有一种隐隐的得意感觉。这是一件很复杂、负责的工作,最好放到最后处理。

  其它三件都是例行公事,尽管第二件可能需要查阅一系列数字,有些枯燥单调。

Winston dialled ‘back numbers’ on the telescreen and called for the appropriate issues of The Times, 定语从句which slid out of the pneumatic tube after only a few minutes’ delay. The messages he had received referred to articles or news items 定语从句which for one reason or another it was thought necessary to alter, or, as the official phrase had it, to rectify. For example, it appeared from The Times of the seventeenth of March 主语从句that Big Brother, in his speech of the previous day, had predicted 宾语从句that the South Indian front would remain quiet but that a Eurasian offensive would shortly be launched in North Africa. As it happened, the Eurasian Higher Command had launched its offensive in South India and left North Africa alone. It was therefore necessary to rewrite a paragraph of Big Brother’s speech, in such a way as to make him predict the thing 定语从句that had actually happened. Or again, The Times of the nineteenth of December had published the official forecasts of the output of various classes of consumption goods in the fourth quarter of 1983, 定语从句which was also the sixth quarter of the Ninth Three-Year Plan. Today’s issue contained a statement of the actual output, 定语从句from which it appeared that the forecasts were in every instance grossly wrong. Winston’s job was to rectify the original figures by making them agree with the later ones. As for the third message, it referred to a very simple error 定语从句which could be set right in a couple of minutes. As short a time ago as February, the Ministry of Plenty had issued a promise (a ‘categorical pledge’ were the official words) 同位语从句that there would be no reduction of the chocolate ration during 1984. Actually, as Winston was aware, the chocolate ration was to be reduced from thirty grammes to twenty at the end of the present week. All 定语从句that was needed was to substitute for the original promise a warning 同位语从句that it would probably be necessary to reduce the ration at some time in April.

As soon as Winston had dealt with each of the messages, he clipped his speakwritten corrections to the appropriate copy of The Times and pushed them into the pneumatic tube. Then, with a movement which was as nearly as possible unconscious, he crumpled up the original message and any notes 定语从句that he himself had made, and dropped them into the memory hole to be devoured by the flames.

What happened in the unseen labyrinth 定语从句to which the pneumatic tubes led, he did not know in detail, but he did know in general terms. 时间从句As soon as all the corrections 定语从句which happened to be necessary in any particular number of The Times had been assembled and collated, that number would be reprinted, the original copy destroyed, and the corrected copy placed on the files in its stead. This process of continuous alteration was applied not only to newspapers, but to books, periodicals, pamphlets, posters, leaflets, films, sound-tracks, cartoons, photographs — to every kind of literature or documentation 定语从句which might conceivably hold any political or ideological significance. Day by day and almost minute by minute the past was brought up to date. In this way every prediction made by the Party could be shown by documentary evidence to have been correct, nor was any item of news, or any expression of opinion, 定语从句which conflicted with the needs of the moment, ever allowed to remain on record. All history was a palimpsest, 分词定语scraped clean and reinscribed exactly as often as was necessary. In no case would it have been possible, once the deed was done, to prove that any falsification had taken place. The largest section of the Records Department, far larger than the one 定语从句on which Winston worked, consisted simply of persons 定语从句whose duty it was to track down and collect all copies of books, newspapers, and other documents which had been superseded and were due for destruction. A number of The Times 定语从句which might, because of changes in political alignment, or mistaken prophecies uttered by Big Brother, have been rewritten a dozen times still stood on the files bearing its original date, and no other copy existed to contradict it. Books, also, were recalled and rewritten again and again, and were invariably reissued without any admission 同位语从句that any alteration had been made. Even the written instructions 定语从句which Winston received, and which he invariably got rid of as soon as he had dealt with them, never stated or implied 宾语从句that an act of forgery was to be committed: always the reference was to slips, errors, misprints, or misquotations 定语从句which it was necessary to put right in the interests of accuracy.

温斯顿在电幕上拨了“过期报刊”号码,要了有关各天的《泰晤士报》,过几分钟气力输送管就送了出来。他接到的指示提到一些为了这个或那个原因必须修改——或者用官方的话来说——必须核正的文章或新闻。例如,三月十七日的《泰晤士报》报道,老大哥在前一天的讲话中预言南印度前线将平净无事,欧亚国不久将在北非发动攻势。结果却是,欧亚国最高统帅部在南印度发动了攻势,没有去碰北非。因此有必要改写老大哥讲话中的一段话,使他的预言符合实际情况。又如十二月十九日的《泰晤士报》发表了1983年第四季度也是第九个三年计划的六季度——各类消费品产量的官方估计数字。今天的《泰晤士报》刊载了实际产量,对比之下,原来的估计每一项都错得厉害。温斯顿的工作就是核正原先的数字,使它们与后来的数字相符。至于第三项指示,指的是一个很简单的错误,几分钟就可以改正。近在二月间,富裕部许下诺言(官方的话是“明确保证”)在1984年内不再降低巧克力的定量供应。而事实上,温斯顿也知道,在本星期末开始,巧克力的定量供应要从三十克降到二十克。温斯顿需要做的,只是把一句提醒大家可能需要在四月间降低定量的话来代替原来的诺言就行了。

  温斯顿每处理一项指示后,就把听写器写好的更正夹在有关的那天《泰晤士报》上,送进了气力输送管。然后他把原来的指示和他做的笔记都捏成一团,丢在忘怀洞里去让火焰吞噬。这个动作做得尽可能的自然。

  这些气力输送管最后通到哪里,可以说是一个看不见的迷宫,里面究竟情况如何,他并不具体了解,不过一般情况他是了解的。不论哪一天的《泰晤士报》,凡是需要更正的材料收齐核对以后,那一天的报纸就要重印,原来的报纸就要销毁,把改正后的报纸存档。这种不断修改的工作不仅适用于报纸,也适用于书籍、期刊、小册子、招贴画、传单、电影、录音带、漫画、照片——凡是可能具有政治意义或思想意义的一切文献书籍都统统适用。每天,每时,每刻,都把过去作了修改,使之符合当前情况。这样,党的每一个预言都有文献证明是正确的。凡是与当前需要不符的任何新闻或任何意见,都不许保留在纪录上。全部历史都象一张不断刮干净重写的羊皮纸。这一工作完成以后,无论如何都无法证明曾经发生过伪造历史的事。纪录司里最大的一个处——比温斯顿工作的那个处要大得多——里工作人员的工作,就是把凡是内容过时而需销毁的一切书籍、报纸和其他文件统统收回来。由于政治组合的变化,或者老大哥预言的错误,有些天的《泰晤士报》可能已经改写过了十几次,而犹以原来日期存档,也不留原来报纸,也不留其他版本,可证明它不对。书籍也一而再、再而三地收回来重写,重新发行时也从来不承认作过什么修改。甚至温斯顿收到的书面指示——他处理之后无不立即销毁的——也从来没有明言过或暗示过要他干伪造的勾当,说的总是为了保持正确无误,必须纠正一些疏忽、错误、排印错误和引用错误。

But actually, he thought 宾语从句as时间从句 he re-adjusted the Ministry of Plenty’s figures, it was not even forgery. It was merely the substitution of one piece of nonsense for another. Most of the material 定语从句that you were dealing with had no connexion with anything in the real world, not even the kind of connexion 定语从句that is contained in a direct lie. Statistics were just as much a fantasy in their original version as in their rectified version. A great deal of the time you were expected to make them up out of your head. For example, the Ministry of Plenty’s forecast had estimated the output of boots for the quarter at one-hundred-and-forty-five million pairs. The actual output was given as sixty-two millions. Winston, however, in rewriting the forecast, marked the figure down to fifty-seven millions, so as to allow for the usual claim that the quota had been overfulfilled. In any case, sixty-two millions was no nearer the truth than fifty-seven millions, or than one-hundred-and-forty-five millions. Very likely no boots had been produced at all. Likelier still, nobody knew 宾语从句how many had been produced, much less cared. All 定语从句one knew was 表语从句that every quarter astronomical numbers of boots were produced on paper, 对比从句while perhaps half the population of Oceania went barefoot. And so it was with every class of recorded fact, great or small. Everything faded away into a shadow-world 定语从句in which, finally, even the date of the year had become uncertain.

Winston glanced across the hall. In the corresponding cubicle on the other side a small, precise-looking, dark-chinned man named Tillotson was working steadily away, with a folded newspaper on his knee and his mouth very close to the mouthpiece of the speakwrite. He had the air of trying to keep 宾语从句what he was saying a secret between himself and the telescreen. He looked up, and his spectacles darted a hostile flash in Winston’s direction.

Winston hardly knew Tillotson, and had no idea 宾语从句what work he was employed on. People in the Records Department did not readily talk about their jobs. In the long, windowless hall, with its double row of cubicles and its endless rustle of papers and hum of voices murmuring into speakwrites, there were quite a dozen people 定语从句whom Winston did not even know by name, though he daily saw them hurrying to and fro in the corridors or gesticulating in the Two Minutes Hate. He knew 宾语从句that in the cubicle next to him the little woman with sandy hair toiled day in day out, simply at tracking down and deleting from the Press the names of people 定语从句who had been vaporized and were therefore considered never to have existed. There was a certain fitness in this, 原因从句since her own husband had been vaporized a couple of years earlier. And a few cubicles away a mild, ineffectual, dreamy creature named Ampleforth, with very hairy ears and a surprising talent for juggling with rhymes and metres, was engaged in producing garbled versions — definitive texts, they were called — of poems 定语从句which had become ideologically offensive, but which for one reason or another were to be retained in the anthologies. And this hall, with its fifty workers or thereabouts, was only one sub-section, a single cell, as it were, in the huge complexity of the Records Department. Beyond, above, below, were other swarms of workers engaged in an unimaginable multitude of jobs. There were the huge printing-shops with their sub-editors, their typography experts, and their elaborately equipped studios for the faking of photographs. There was the tele-programmes section with its engineers, its producers, and its teams of actors specially chosen for their skill in imitating voices. There were the armies of reference clerks 定语从句whose job was simply to draw up lists of books and periodicals which were due for recall. There were the vast repositories 定语从句where the corrected documents were stored, and the hidden furnaces 定语从句where the original copies were destroyed. And somewhere or other, quite anonymous, there were the directing brains 定语从句who co-ordinated the whole effort and laid down the lines of policy 定语从句which made it necessary that this fragment of the past should be preserved, that one falsified, and the other rubbed out of existence.

不过,他一边改正富裕部的数字一边想,事实上这连伪造都谈不上。这不过是用一个谎话来代替另一个谎话。你所处理的大部分材料与实际世界里的任何东西都没有关系,甚至连赤裸裸的谎言中所具备的那种关系也没有。原来的统计数字固然荒诞不经,改正以后也同样荒诞不经。很多时候都是要你凭空瞎编出来的。比如,富裕部预测本季度鞋子的产量是一亿四千五百万双。至于实际产量提出来的数字,是六千二百万双。但是温斯顿在重新改写预测时把数字减到五千七百万双,以便可以象通常那样声称超额完成了计划。反正,六千二百万并不比五千七百万更接近实际情况,也不比一亿四千五百万更接近实际情况。很可能一双鞋子也没有生产。

  更可能的是,没有人知道究竟生产了多少双,更没有人关心这件事。你所知道的只是,每个季度在纸面都生产了天文数字的鞋子,但是大洋国里却有近一半的人口打赤脚。每种事实的纪录都是这样,不论大小。一切都消隐在一个影子世界里,最后甚至连今年是哪一年都弄不清了。

  温斯顿朝大厅那一边望去。在那一边对称的一间小办公室里,一个名叫铁洛逊的外表精明、下颊黧黑的小个子在忙个不停地工作着,膝上放着一卷报纸,嘴巴凑近听写器的话筒。他的神情仿佛是要除了电幕以外不让旁人听到他的话。

  他抬起头来,眼镜朝温斯顿方向闪了一下敌意的反光。

  温斯顿一点也不了解铁洛逊,不知道他究竟在做什么工作。纪录司里的人不大愿意谈论他们自己的工作。在这个没有窗户的长长的大厅里,两旁都是一间间小办公室,纸张的悉索声和对着听写器说话的嗡嗡声连绵不断。有十多个人,温斯顿连姓名也不知道,尽管他每天看到他们忙碌地在走廊里来来往往,或者在两分钟仇恨的时间里挥手跺脚。他知道,在他隔壁的那个小办公室中,那个淡茶色头发的小女人一天到晚忙个不停,做的只是在报纸上查找已经化为乌有、因而认为从来没有存在过的人的姓名,然后把这些人的姓名删去。这事让她来做可说相当合适,因为她自己的文夫就在两年以前化为乌有了。再过去几间小办公室,有一个名叫安普尔福思的态度温和、窝窝囊囊、神情恍惚的人,耳朵上长着很多的毛,玩弄诗词韵律却令人意想不到地颇具天才,他所从事的工作就是删改一些在思想上有害但为了某种原因仍需保留在诗集上的诗歌——他们称之为定稿本。这个大厅有五十来个工作人员,还只不过是一个科,可说是整个纪录司这个庞大复杂的有机体中的一个细胞。上下左右还有许许多多的工作人员在从事各种各样为数之多无法想象的工作。还有很大的印刷车间,里面有编校排印人员和设备讲究的伪造照片的暗房。还有电视节目处,里面有工程师、制片人、各式各样的演员,他们的特长就是模拟别人的声音。还有大批大批的资料员,他们的工作是开列应予收回的书籍和期刊的清单。还有庞大的存档室存放改正后的文件,隐蔽的锅炉销毁原件。还有不知为什么匿名的指导的智囊人员,领导全部工作,决定方针政策——过去的这件事应予保留,那件事应予篡改,另外一件又应抹去痕迹。

And the Records Department, after all, was itself only a single branch of the Ministry of Truth, 定语从句whose primary job was not to reconstruct the past but to supply the citizens of Oceania with newspapers, films, textbooks, telescreen programmes, plays, novels — with every conceivable kind of information, instruction, or entertainment, from a statue to a slogan, from a lyric poem to a biological treatise, and from a child’s spelling-book to a Newspeak dictionary. And the Ministry had not only to supply the multifarious needs of the party, but also to repeat the whole operation at a lower level for the benefit of the proletariat. There was a whole chain of separate departments dealing with proletarian literature, music, drama, and entertainment generally. Here were produced rubbishy newspapers containing almost nothing except sport, crime and astrology, sensational five-cent novelettes, films oozing with sex, and sentimental songs 定语从句which were composed entirely by mechanical means on a special kind of kaleidoscope known as a versificator. There was even a whole sub-section — Pornosec, it was called in Newspeak — engaged in producing the lowest kind of pornography, 定语从句which was sent out in sealed packets and which no Party member, other than those who worked on it, was permitted to look at.

Three messages had slid out of the pneumatic tube 时间从句while Winston was working, but they were simple matters, and he had disposed of them before the Two Minutes Hate interrupted him. When the Hate was over he returned to his cubicle, took the Newspeak dictionary from the shelf, pushed the speakwrite to one side, cleaned his spectacles, and settled down to his main job of the morning.

Winston’s greatest pleasure in life was in his work. Most of it was a tedious routine, but included in it there were also jobs so difficult and intricate 结果从句that you could lose yourself in them as in the depths of a mathematical problem — delicate pieces of forgery 定语从句in which you had nothing to guide you except your knowledge of the principles of Ingsoc and your estimate of what the Party wanted you to say. Winston was good at this kind of thing. On occasion he had even been entrusted with the rectification of The Times leading articles, 定语从句which were written entirely in Newspeak. He unrolled the message 定语从句that he had set aside earlier. It ran:

times 3.12.83 reporting bb dayorder doubleplusungood refs unpersons rewrite fullwise upsub antefiling

In Oldspeak (or standard English) this might be rendered:

The reporting of Big Brother’s Order for the Day in The Times of December 3rd 1983 is extremely unsatisfactory and makes references to non-existent persons. Rewrite it in full and submit your draft to higher authority before filing.

Winston read through the offending article. Big Brother’s Order for the Day, it seemed, had been chiefly devoted to praising the work of an organization known as FFCC, 定语从句which supplied cigarettes and other comforts to the sailors in the Floating Fortresses. A certain Comrade Withers, a prominent member of the Inner Party, had been singled out for special mention and awarded a decoration, the Order of Conspicuous Merit, Second Class.

不过说到底,纪录司本身不过是真理部的一个部门,而真理部的主要任务不是改写过去的历史,而是为大洋国的公民提供报纸、电影、教科书、电视节目、戏剧、小说——凡是可以想象得到的一切情报、教育成娱乐,从一个塑像到一句口号,从一首抒情诗到一篇生物学论文,从一本学童拼字书到一本新话辞典。真理部不仅要满足党的五花八门的需要,而且也要全部另搞一套低级的东西供无产阶级享用,因此另设一系列不同的部门,负责无产阶级文学、戏剧、音乐我一般的娱乐,出版除了体育运动、凶杀犯罪、天文星象以外没有任何其他内容的无聊报纸,廉价的刺激小说,色情电影,靡靡之音,后者这种歌曲完全是用一种叫做谱曲器的特殊机器用机械的方法谱写出来的。甚至有一科——新话叫色科——专门负责生产最低级的色情文学,密封发出,除了有关工作人员外,任何党员都不得偷看。

  温斯顿工作的时候又有三条指示从气力输送管的口子里送了出来;不过它们都是一些简单的事,他在两分钟仇恨打断他的工作之前就把它们处理掉了。仇恨结束后,他又回到他的小办公室里,从书架子上取下新话辞典,把听写器推开一边,擦了擦眼镜,着手做他这天上午主要的工作。

  工作是温斯顿生活中最大的乐趣。他的大部分工作都是单调枯燥的例行公事,但是其中也有一些十分困难复杂的工作,你一钻进去就会忘掉自己,就好象钻进一个复杂的数学问题一样——这是一些细腻微妙的伪造工作,除了你自己对英社原则的理解和你自己对党要你说些什么话的估计以外,没有什么东西可作你的指导。温斯顿擅长于这样一类的工作,有一次甚至要他改正《泰晤士报》完全用新话写的社论。

  他现在打开他原先放在一边的那份指示。上面是:

  泰晤士3.12.83报道老大命令双加不好提到非人全部重写存档前上交。

  用老话(或者标准英语)这可以译为:

  1983年12月3日《泰晤士报》报道老大哥命令的消息极为不妥,因为它提到不存在的人。全部重写,在存档前将你草稿送上级审查。

  温斯顿读了一遍这篇有问题的报道。原来老大哥的命令主要是表扬一个叫做FFCC的组织的工作的,该组织的任务是为水上堡垒的水兵供应香烟和其他物品。有个名叫维瑟斯同志的核心党高级党员受到了特别表扬,并授与他一枚二级特殊勋章。

Three months later FFCC had suddenly been dissolved with no reasons given. One could assume that Withers and his associates were now in disgrace, but there had been no report of the matter in the Press or on the telescreen. That was to be expected, 原因从句since it was unusual for political offenders to be put on trial or even publicly denounced. The great purges involving thousands of people, with public trials of traitors and thought-criminals 定语从句who made abject confession of their crimes and were afterwards executed, were special show-pieces not occurring oftener than once in a couple of years. More commonly, people 定语从句who had incurred the displeasure of the Party simply disappeared and were never heard of again. One never had the smallest clue as to 宾语从句what had happened to them. In some cases they might not even be dead. Perhaps thirty people personally known to Winston, not counting his parents, had disappeared at one time or another.

Winston stroked his nose gently with a paper-clip. In the cubicle across the way Comrade Tillotson was still crouching secretively over his speakwrite. He raised his head for a moment: again the hostile spectacle-flash. Winston wondered 宾语从句whether Comrade Tillotson was engaged on the same job as himself. It was perfectly possible. So tricky a piece of work would never be entrusted to a single person: on the other hand, 不定式主语to turn it over to a committee would be 不定式表语to admit openly that an act of fabrication was taking place. Very likely as many as a dozen people were now working away on rival versions of what Big Brother had actually said. And presently some master brain in the Inner Party would select this version or that, would re-edit it and set in motion the complex processes of cross-referencing 定语从句that would be required, and then the chosen lie would pass into the permanent records and become truth.

Winston did not know 宾语从句why Withers had been disgraced. Perhaps it was for corruption or incompetence. Perhaps Big Brother was merely getting rid of a too-popular subordinate. Perhaps Withers or someone close to him had been suspected of heretical tendencies. Or perhaps — what was likeliest of all — the thing had simply happened 原因从句because purges and vaporizations were a necessary part of the mechanics of government. The only real clue lay in the words ‘refs unpersons’, 定语从句which indicated that Withers was already dead. You could not invariably assume this to be the case when people were arrested. Sometimes they were released and allowed to remain at liberty for as much as a year or two years before being executed. Very occasionally some person 定语从句whom you had believed dead long since would make a ghostly reappearance at some public trial where he would implicate hundreds of others by his testimony before vanishing, this time for ever. Withers, however, was already an unperson. He did not exist: he had never existed. Winston decided that it would not be enough simply to reverse the tendency of Big Brother’s speech. It was better to make it deal with something totally unconnected with its original subject.

He might turn the speech into the usual denunciation of traitors and thought-criminals, but that was a little too obvious, while to invent a victory at the front, or some triumph of over-production in the Ninth Three-Year Plan, might complicate the records too much. 主语从句What was needed was a piece of pure fantasy. Suddenly there sprang into his mind, ready made as it were, the image of a certain Comrade Ogilvy, 定语从句who had recently died in battle, in heroic circumstances. There were occasions when Big Brother devoted his Order for the Day to commemorating some humble, rank-and-file Party member whose life and death 定语从句he held up as an example worthy to be followed. To-day he should commemorate Comrade Ogilvy. It was true 主语从句that there was no such person as Comrade Ogilvy, but a few lines of print and a couple of faked photographs would soon bring him into existence.

三个月以后,FFCC突然解散,原因未加说明。可以断定,维瑟斯和他的同事们现在已经失宠了,但是在报上或电幕上对此都没有报道。这是意料中事,因为对政治犯一般并不经常进行公开审判或者甚至公开谴责的。对成千上万的人进行大清洗,公开审判叛国犯和思想犯,让他们摇尾乞怜地认罪然后加以处决,这样专门摆布出来给大家看,是过一两年才有一遭的事。比较经常的是,干脆让招党不满的入就此失踪,不知下落。谁也一点不知道,他们究竟遭到什么下场。有些人可能根本没有死。温斯顿相识的人中,先后失踪的就有大约三十来个人,还不算他们的父母。

  温斯顿用一个纸夹子轻轻地擦着他的鼻子。在对面那个小办公室中,铁洛逊同志仍在诡谲地对着听写器说话。他抬了一下头,眼镜上又闪出一下敌意的反光。温斯顿心里在寻思,铁洛逊在干的工作是不是同他自己的工作一样。这是完全可能的。这样困难的工作是从来不会交给一个人负责的;但另一方面,把这工作交给一个委员会来做,又等于是公开承认要进行伪造。很可能现在有多到十几个人在分别修改老大哥说过的话,将来由核心党内一个大智囊选用其中一个版本,重新加以编辑,再让人进行必要的反复核对,经过这一复杂工序后,最后那个当选的谎言就载入永久纪录,成为真理。

  温斯顿不知道维瑟斯为什么失宠。也许是由于贪污,也许是由于失职。也许老大哥只是为了要除掉一个太得民心的下级。也许维瑟斯或者他亲近的某个人有倾向异端之嫌。也许——这是可能性最大的——只是因为清洗和化为乌有已成了政府运转的一个必要组成部分,所以就发生了这件事。唯一真正的线索在于“提到非人”几个宇,这表明维瑟斯已经死了。并不是凡是有人被捕,你就可以作出这样的假定。有时他们获释出来,可以继续自由一两年,然后再被处决。也有很偶然的情况,你以为早已死了的人忽然象鬼魂一样出现在一次公开审判会上,他的供词又株连好几百个人,然后再销声匿迹,这次是永远不再出现了。但是,维瑟斯已是一个非人(unperson)。他并不存在;他从来没有存在过。因此温斯顿决定,仅仅改变老大哥发言的倾向是不够的。最好是把发言内容改为同原来话题完全不相干的事。

  他可以把发言内容改为一般常见的对叛国犯和思想犯的谴责,但这有些太明显了,而捏造前线的一场胜利,或者第九个三年计划超额生产的胜利,又会带来太复杂的修改记录工作。最好是来个纯粹虚构幻想。突然他的脑海里出现了一个叫做奥吉尔维同志的人的形象,好象是现成的一样,这个人最近在作战中英勇牺牲。有的时候老大哥的命令是表扬某个低微的普通党员的,那是因为他认为这个人的生与死是值得别人仿效的榜样。今天他应该表扬奥吉尔维同志。不错,根本没有奥吉尔维同志这样一个人,但是只要印上几行字,伪造几张照片,就可以马上使他存在。

Winston thought for a moment, then pulled the speakwrite towards him and began dictating in Big Brother’s familiar style: a style at once military and pedantic, and, because of a trick of asking questions and then promptly answering them (‘What lessons do we learn from this fact, comrades? The lesson — which is also one of the fundamental principles of Ingsoc — that,’ etc., etc.), easy to imitate.

At the age of three Comrade Ogilvy had refused all toys except a drum, a sub-machine gun, and a model helicopter. At six — a year early, by a special relaxation of the rules — he had joined the Spies, at nine he had been a troop leader. At eleven he had denounced his uncle to the Thought Police after overhearing a conversation 定语从句which appeared to him to have criminal tendencies. At seventeen he had been a district organizer of the Junior Anti-Sex League. At nineteen he had designed a hand-grenade 定语从句which had been adopted by the Ministry of Peace and which, at its first trial, had killed thirty-one Eurasian prisoners in one burst. At twenty-three he had perished in action. 分词状语Pursued by enemy jet planes while flying over the Indian Ocean with important despatches, he had weighted his body with his machine gun and leapt out of the helicopter into deep water, despatches and all — an end, said Big Brother, 定语从句which it was impossible to contemplate without feelings of envy. Big Brother added a few remarks on the purity and single-mindedness of Comrade Ogilvy’s life. He was a total abstainer and a non-smoker, had no recreations except a daily hour in the gymnasium, and had taken a vow of celibacy, 分词状语believing marriage and the care of a family to be incompatible with a twenty-four-hour-a-day devotion to duty. He had no subjects of conversation except the principles of Ingsoc, and no aim in life except the defeat of the Eurasian enemy and the hunting-down of spies, saboteurs, thought-criminals, and traitors generally.

Winston debated with himself whether to award Comrade Ogilvy the Order of Conspicuous Merit: in the end he decided against it because of the unnecessary cross-referencing 定语从句that it would entail.

Once again he glanced at his rival in the opposite cubicle. Something seemed to tell him with certainty 定语从句that Tillotson was busy on the same job as himself. There was no way of knowing whose job would finally be adopted, but he felt a profound conviction 同位语从句that it would be his own. Comrade Ogilvy, unimagined an hour ago, was now a fact. It struck him as curious that you could create dead men but not living ones. Comrade Ogilvy, 定语从句who had never existed in the present, now existed in the past, and 时间从句when once the act of forgery was forgotten, he would exist just as authentically, and upon the same evidence, as Charlemagne or Julius Caesar.

温斯顿想了一会儿,然后把听写器拉了过来,开始用大家听惯了的老大哥腔调口授起来,这个腔调既有军人味道又有学究口气,而且,由于使用先提问题又马上加以回答的手法(“同志们,我们从这个事实中得出什么教训呢?教训——这也是英社的一个基本原则——是”等等,等等),很容易模仿。

  奥吉尔维同志在三岁的时候,除了一面鼓、一挺轻机枪、一架直升飞机模型以外,其他什么玩具都不要。六岁的时候他参加了少年侦察队,这比一般要提早一年,对他特殊照顾,放宽规定;九岁担任队长。十一岁时他在偷听到他的叔叔讲了他觉得有罪的话以后向思想警察作了揭发。十七岁时他担任了少年反性同盟的区队长。十九岁时他设计了一种手榴弹,被和平部采用,首次试验时扔了一枚就炸死了三十一个欧亚国战俘。二十三岁时他作战牺牲。当时他携带重要文件在印度洋上空飞行,遭到敌人喷气机追击,他就身上系了机枪,跳出直升飞机,带着文件沉入海底——这一结局,老大哥说,不能不使人感到羡慕。老大哥还对奥吉尔维同志一生的纯洁和忠诚又说了几句话。他不沾烟酒,除了每天在健身房作操的一小时以外,没有任何其他文娱活动,立誓过独身生活,认为结婚和照顾家庭与一天二十四小时全部奉公是不相容的。他除了英社原则以外没有别的谈话题目,除了击败欧亚国敌人和搜捕间谍、破坏分子、思想犯、叛国犯以外没有别的生活目的。

  温斯顿考虑了很久,要不要授与奥吉尔维同志特殊勋章;最后决定还是不给他,因为这会需要进行不必要的反复核查。

  他又看一眼对面小办公室里的那个对手。似乎有什么东西告诉他,铁洛逊一定也在干他同样的工作。没有办法知道究竟谁的版本最后得到采用,但是他深信一定是自己的那个版本。一个小时以前还没有想到过的奥吉尔维同志,如今已成了事实。他觉得很奇怪,你能够创造死人,却不能创造活人。在现实中从来没有存在过的奥吉尔维同志,如今却存在于过去之中,一旦伪造工作被遗忘后,他就会象查理曼大王或者凯撒大帝一样真实地存在,所根据的是同样的证据。

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