Points that merit special attention

四、使用名词时需要注意的几个问题
Points that merit special attention

(一)名词的复数和词尾“们”
The plural form of nouns and the suffix 们
汉语里名词本身的形式一般没有单复数的区别,表现复数的方式常见的有以下三种:
Usually the singular and plural forms of a noun are identical and the plural is expressed in three ways:

1.名词前边加数词和量词或其他表示复数的词。例如:
By premodifying numeral-measure words or other words implying the plural. For example:
三支铅笔 很多水果
这些书 十七个孩子

  1. 通过句子里其他成分来表示。例如:
    By other elements in the sentence. For example
    客人都来了。
    东西全在桌子上。
  2. 加词尾“们”
    By suffixing 们 to the noun
    指人的名词加“们”后,名词前边就不再用其他表示复数的词了。“们”读轻声。见下表例子:
    By suffixing “们”, which is pronounced in the neutral tone, to the noun. When thus used, no other words expressing the plural number can be used. For example:
三个同学
同学们几个同学
很多同学
不少同学


(二)关于时间词
Time nouns

  1. 时间词是表示日期、时刻、季节等的名词。
    Time nouns are nouns indicating dates, times of the clock, seasons, etc.
  2. 时间词除了能做主语、宾语、定语和谓语外,还经常做状语,而一般名词不具有这个功能。例如:
    Apart from serving as subject, object, attributive and predicate, time nouns can also serve as adverbial adjuncts, whereas nouns of other kinds cannot. For example:
    你明天来。
    我晚上去。
    他们后天到。
    图书馆上午开门。

    (三)关于方位词
    Nouns of locality
    1. 方位词是表示方向或位置的名词。方位词有单音节的、双音节的两种。
    Nouns of locality are nouns showing direction and location. There are two kinds of them: the monosyllabic ones and the dissyllabic ones. Examples of nouns of locality are shown in the table: (Table)
    2.方位词的用途
    The function of nouns of locality

单音节的方位词很少单独使用。双音节的方位词和一般名词用法基本相同,但除了能做主语、宾语和定语外,还可以做状语。例如:
Monosyllabic nouns of locality are seldom used by themselves. Dissyllabic nouns of locality can serve, roughly like ordinary nouns, as subject, object and attributive, only that they can function as adverbial adjuncts as well. For example:
您里边坐。
我们外边谈。

单音节双音节Dissyllabic
Monosyllabic后面加“边”Followed by 边后面加“面”Followed by 面前面加“以”Preceded by 以前面加“之”Preceded by 之其他Miscellaneous
上边上面以上之上上下
下边下面以下之下底下
前边前面以前之前前后
后边后面以后之后
左边左面左右
右边右面
里边里面以里里外
外边外面以外
之中当中
以内之内内外
之间中间
旁边
东边东面以东东南,东北
南边南面以南
西西边西面以西西南,西北
北边北面以北
  1. 注意事项:
    Points that merit special attention:
    (1)单音方位词“里”、“上”常单独用在名词后边。例如:
    Monosyllabic noun of locality and E are usually used after other nouns. For example:
    屋子里 院子里 楼里
    桌子上 书架上 树上
    (2)“里(边)”的用法:The use of 里(边):
    当我们要表示“在……里边”的意思时,要注意“里(边)”的使用方法。
    We should pay attention to the use of 里(边), when it is used to express the meaning of 在…里边.
    ①地理名词后边不用“里(边)”。例如:
    里(边) cannot be used after nouns indicating geographical units. For example:
    我在北京。
    x我在北京里(边)。
    她在法国。
    x她在法国里(边)。
  1. 注意事项:
    Points that merit special attention:
    (1)单音方位词“里”、“上”常单独用在名词后边。例如:
    Monosyllabic noun of locality and E are usually used after other nouns. For example:
    屋子里 院子里 楼里
    桌子上 书架上 树上
    (2)“里(边)”的用法:The use of 里(边):
    当我们要表示“在……里边”的意思时,要注意“里(边)”的使用方法。
    We should pay attention to the use of 里(边), when it is used to express the meaning of 在…里边.
    ①地理名词后边不用“里(边)”。例如:
    里(边) cannot be used after nouns indicating geographical units. For example:
    我在北京。
    x我在北京里(边)。
    她在法国。
    x她在法国里(边)。
    ②表示物件的名词后边需要用“里(边)”。例如:
    里(边) can be used after nouns indicating containers. For example:
    书在抽屉里。
    x书在抽屉。
    杯子在橱柜里。
    x杯子在橱柜。
    (3) 方位词可以直接做句子成分,做主语或状语时前边都不用介词“在”。例如:
    Nouns of locality can be used as various elements of a sentence. When a noun of locality serves as the subject or adverbial adjunct in a sentence, the preposition is not used before it. For example:


里面有一架钢琴。
旁边是我的卧室。
There are no such forms as在里面有一架钢琴,在旁边是我的卧室, etc.
“您里边坐”是“请您到里边坐”的意思。不说“您在里边坐”。
您里边坐 means 请您到里边坐,One cannot say 您在里边坐。
(4)“以前”和“以后”的用法:
How to use 以前 and 以后:
方位词“以前”和“以后”只能表示时间。
The nouns of locality and E are generally used to indicate time.
①做状语
As an adverbial adjunct
我以前学英语,现在学汉语。
(在主语后谓语前)
(以前 is between the subject and the predicate. )
以后我再来。
(在句首,主语前)
(以后 is at the beginning of the sentence. )
②做定语
As attributive
以前的房子不太好。
这是以后的计划。
③前边可以有定语。
There can be attributives before “以前”.
八点以前(我们都来了。)
上课以前(我们都到了。)

(四)名词做定语和结构助词“的(de)”
Nouns serving as attributives and the structural particle 的(de)

  1. 定语一定要放在被修饰的中心语(多为名词)前边。例如:
    The attributive must be placed before the modified word (normally a noun). For example :
    金老师是中国人。
    (“金”、“中国”是名词,是定语;“老师”、“人”
    是名词,是中心语。)
    (金and中国 are nouns serving as attributives while 老师 and 人 are nouns used as modified words.)
    这是纸花。
  2. 表示领属关系的名词定语后边要用助词“的”。例如:
    The structural particle should be used after an attributive composed of a noun indicating the possessive relation. For example:
    老师的书在桌子上。
    姐姐的梳子是红的。
    3.时间词、方位词做定语时要用助词“的”。例如:
    When words of time or of locality serve as attributives, ý is normally ușed. For example:
    这是星期一的票。
    前边的楼是学生宿合。
    (五)名词做状语
    Nouns used as adverbial adjuncts
    状语一定要放在被修饰的中心语(多为动词)前边。例如:
    The adverbial adjunct must be placed before the modified word (normally a verb). For example:

您明天来吗?
(“明天”是时间词,是状语;“来”是动词,是中心语。)
( 明天 is noun of time used as the adverbial adjunct and 来, a verb, is the modified word. )
我们里边谈。
(“里边”是方位词,是状语;“谈”是动词,是中心语。)
( 里边 is a noun of locality functioning as adverbial adjunct modifying k, a verb used as modified word. )

(六)少数名词可以直接做谓语,不需要加“是”等动词。例如:
There are a few nouns which can serve as predicate without using the verb . For example:
昨天阴天。
今天星期二。
明天元旦。

(七)单音节名词重叠后只能做主语或状语。例如:
The reduplication of monosyllabic nouns can only be used as the subject or adverbial adjunct. For example:
人人有工作。
(做主语)
( as the subject)
事事顺利。
(做主语)
( as the subject)
他天天来。
(做状语)
( as the adverbial adjunct)

(八)名词“年”
The noun 年
在汉语里,“年”只表示时间。例如:
In Chinese, 年 is only a measure of time. For example:
今年是二○○八年。
他二○○六年开始学习汉语。

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