Definition and types of particles

助词的定义和种类
Definition and types of particles
附在词、词组或句子后边,表示各种附加意义、语法关系或语气的词叫助词。助词可以分成三类。
A word which is added to another word, a phrase or a sentence to indicate various supplementary meanings, grammatical relations or mood is called a particle. The particles can be divided into three kinds.
(一)结构助词
The structural particles
附在词或词组后达边表示语法关系的助词叫结构助词。最常用的结构助词有:
Particles added to words or phrases to indicate grammatical relations are called structural particles. The most important structural particles are:
的(de)
地(de)
得(de)
(二)动态助词
The aspectual particles
附在动词后边表示附加意义的助词叫动态助词。动态助词有:
Particles added to verbs to indicate a supplementary meaning are called aspectual particles. The aspectual particles are:
了(le)
着(zhe)
过(guo)
(三)语气助词
The modal particles
附在句子末尾表示各种语气的助词叫语气助词。语气助词有:
Particles used at the end of a sentence to express moods are
吗(ma) 呢(ne) 吧(ba) 了(le) 啊(a) 的(de)
嘛(ma) 哪(na) 啦(la) 呀(ya) 哇(wa)

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