非谓语动词在句法中的用法

7.2 非谓语动词在句法中的用法  

7.2.1 不定式的句法功能  

1)作主语   

To lose your heart means failure.   

丧失勇气意味着失败。 

动词不定式短语作主语时,常用it作形式主语,例如上句可用如下形式:  

It means failure to lose your heart.  

2)作表语   

Her job is to clean the hall.  

她的工作是打扫大厅。 

3)作宾语  

常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用 it 作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后置,放在宾语补足语后面。  

Mary found it important to study the situation in Russia.  

玛丽认为了解俄罗斯局势非常重要。 

动词不定式也可充当介词宾语。  

I have no choice but to stay here.  

我别无选择,只能呆在这里。 

动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用。 

He gave us some advice on how to learn English.  

他就如何学习英语给了我们一些建议。 

4)作宾语补足语:   

在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语补足语,如下动词常跟这种复合宾语:want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite.   

此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用。   

With a lot of work to do, he didn’t go to the cinema.   

有很多工作要做,他没有去看电影。 

有些动词如 make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have 等与不带有 to 的不定式连用,但改为被动语态时,要还原 to。 

I saw him cross the road. He was seen to cross the road.  

我看到他过马路了。 

5)作定语:   

动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系: 

① 动宾关系:   

I have a meeting to attend.   

我参加了一个会议。 

注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词。  

He found a good house to live in.  

他找到了一栋好房子住。 

The child has nothing to worry about.   

这孩子没有什么可担心的。 

如果不定式修饰 time, place, way,可以省略介词:  

He has no place to live.   

他无处可居。 

This is the best way to work out this problem.   

这是解决此问题的最佳方法。 

如果不定式所修饰的名词是不定式动作的承受者,不定式可用主动式也可用被动式:   

Have you got anything to send?  

你有什么要发寄的吗? 

Have you got anything to be sent?  

② 说明所修饰名词的内容:   

We have made a plan to finish the work.  

我们已经制定了完成工作的计划。 

③ 被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语:  

He is the first to get here.  

他是第一个来到这里的人。 

6)作状语: 

 ① 表目的:   

He worked day and night to get the money.  

他日以继夜地赚钱。 

She sold her hair to buy the watch chain.  

她卖了头发买了表链。 

注意: 

不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致:  

wrong:To save money, every means has been tried.  

right:To save money, he has tried every means.  

为了省钱,他尝试了各种方法。 

wrong:To learn English well, a dictionary is needed.  

right:To learn English well, he needs a dictionary.  

为了学好英语,他需要一本字典。 

② 表结果:   

He arrived late to find the train gone.  

他迟到,发现火车已开走了。 

常用 only 放在不定式前表示强调:  

I visited him only to find him out.  

我拜访他,但发现他出去了。 

③ 表原因:   

They were very sad to hear the news.  

他们听到这个消息后非常难过。 

④ 表程度: 

It’s too dark for us to see anything.  

天太黑了,我们看不到任何东西了。 

7)作独立成分:   

To tell you the truth, I don’t like the way he talked.  

说实话,我不喜欢他说话的方式。 

8. 不定式的省略:保留to省略do动词   

If you don’t want to do it, you don’t need to.  

如果你不想做,就不需要做。 

9. 不定式的并列:第二个不定式可省略 to   

He wished to study medicine and become a doctor.    

他希望学医并成为一名医生。 

7.2.2 -ing 分词的句法功能——-ing 分词又分为动名词及现在分词  

1)动名词的句法功能:    

① 作主语:   

Reading aloud is very helpful.   

大声朗读非常有帮助。 

当动名词短语作主语时常用 it 作形式主语。  

It’s no use quarrelling.  

争吵是没有用的。 

② 作表语:   

In the ant city, the queen’s job is laying eggs.  

在蚂蚁城,女王的工作是产蛋。 

③ 作宾语:   

They haven’t finished building the dam.   

他们还没有建成大坝。 

We have to prevent the air from being polluted.    

我们必须防止空气被污染。 

注意: 

动名词既可作动词宾语也可作介词宾语,如上面两个例句。此外,动名词作宾语时,若跟有宾语补足语,则常用形式宾语 it。   

We found it no good making fun of others.  

我们发现取笑他人不好。  

如下动词及短语只跟动名词作宾语:resist(抵抗),mind(介意),suggest(建议),delay(推迟),keep(on) (保持),look forward to (期昐),enjoy(喜欢),include(包括),appreciate(欣赏),imagine(想象),practise(实践),finish(完成),consider(考虑),can’t help(不禁),miss(错过)。以上动词及短语可以通过口诀进行记忆:抗议(意)推辞(迟)昐喜报,心(欣)想事(实)成考不错。   

④ 作定语: 

Is there a swimming pool in your school?   

你学校有游泳池吗? 

⑤ 作同位语:   

His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged.  

他在收音机上听新闻的习惯保持不变。 

2)现在分词的句法功能:   

① 作定语:现在分词作定语,当分词单独做定语时,放在所修饰的名词前;如果是分词短语做定语放在名词后。  

In the following years he worked even harder.   

在接下来几年里,他工作更加努力。 

The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor’s father.    

和老师说话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。 

现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能,如:in the following years 也可用 in the years that followed; the man speaking to the teacher 可改为 the man who is speaking to the teacher.   

②作表语 

The present situation is inspiring.    

目前的情况令人鼓舞。 

be + doing 既可能表示现在进行时,也可能是现在分词做表语,它们的区别在于 be + doing 表示进行的动作是进行时,而表示特征时是系动词be与现在分词构成系表结构。   

③ 作宾语补足语 

如下动词后可跟现在分词作宾语补足语:see, let, make, listen, hear, have, watch, notice, feel, look at 等。   

Can you hear her singing the song in the next room?    

你能听到她在隔壁房间唱歌吗? 

以上动词同样也可以通过口诀进行记忆:三让(make,let,have),三看(see,look at, watch),两听(listen, hear),注意感觉(notice, feel)。   

④ 作状语 

a. 作时间状语 

(While) Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker.  

在工厂工作时,他是一名高级工人。 

b.作原因状语 

Being a League member, he is always helping others.  

作为联盟成员,他总是在帮助别人。 

c.作方式状语,表示伴随 

He stayed at home, cleaning and washing.  

d.作条件状语 

(If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time.  

e.作结果状语  

He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces.  

他掉了玻璃杯,把它打碎了。 

f.作目的状语   

He went swimming the other day.  

前几天他去游泳了。 

g.作让步状语   

Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon.   

尽管下大雨,但天很快就晴了。 

h.与逻辑主语构成独立主格:   

I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my head.  

我在等公共汽车时,一只鸟落在我头上。 

Time permitting, we’ll do another two exercises.   

如果时间允许,我们将再做两道练习。  

有时也可用 with (without) +名词(代词宾格)+ 分词形式。  

With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。  

i.作独立成分 

Generally speaking, girls are more careful.     

一般来说,女孩更加小心。 

7.2.3 -ed 分词的句法功能  

1)作定语   

Our class went on an organized trip last Monday.    

我们班上周一做了一次组织旅行。 

Those elected as committee members will attend the meeting.   

当选为委员会成员的人将出席会议。 

注意: 

当过去分词是单词时,一般用于名词前,如果是过去分词短语,就放在名词的后面。过去分词做定语相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。   

2)作表语:   

The window is broken.    

窗户坏了。 

注意: 

be + 过去分词,如果表示状态是系表结构,如果表示被动的动作是被动语态。  

The window is broken. 

窗户坏了。(系表)   

The window was broken by the boy.(被动)   

窗户被男孩打破了。 

有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的,不表示被动,只表示完成。 

boiled water(开水)fallen leaves(落叶)newly arrived goods(新到的货)the risen sun(升起的太阳)the changed world(变了的世界)   

这类过去分词有:gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed 等。   

3)作宾语补足语:   

I heard the song sung several times last week.   

我上周听过几次这首歌。 

有时过去分词做 with 短语中的宾语补足语。 

With the work done, they went out to play.   

完成工作后,他们出去玩了。 

4)作状语:   

Praised by the teacher, he felt proud. 

被老师表扬,他感到自豪。(表示原因)  

Once seen, it can never be forgotten. 

一旦看过,它永远不会被遗忘。(表示时间)   

Given more time, I’ll be able to do it better. 

如果有更多的时间,我能够做得更好。(表示条件)  

Though told of the danger, he still want to have a try.(表示让步)  

虽然被告知危险,但他还是想尝试一下。

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *