过去完成时

3.8 过去完成时   

3.8.1 过去完成时的概念     

过去完成时表示过去某一时间或某一事件之前已经发生的动作或状态,即过去的过去。图示如下:        

—-|————————– |—————————|———————–>       

过去完成                  过去                     现在                将来  

3.8.2 构成   

1)肯定句:主语+had+过去分词   

When we got there, the football match had already started.  

当我们到达那里时,足球比赛已经开始了。 

2)否定句: 

主语+had not+过去分词   

He hadn’t worked for two years by then.  

到那时他已经两年没有工作了。 

3)疑问句:had+主语+过去分词…?   

Had he finished the work by last month?   

他上个月完成工作吗? 

3.8.3 用法   

1)过去完成时表示过去某一时刻或者某一动作之前完成的动作或状态; 句中常用by, before, until, when等词引导的时间状语。   

By the time she got up, her brother had already gone into the bathroom.     

当她起床时,她哥哥已经进入了浴室。 

2)过去完成时的动词还可以表示过去某一时刻之前发生的动作或者状态持续到过去某个时间或者持续下去。   

Before he slept, he had worked for 12 hours.    

睡觉之前,他已经工作了12个小时。 

3)在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。       

She said (that) she had never been to Paris.   

她说,她从未去过巴黎。 

4、在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。       

When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.  

当警察到达时,小偷已逃跑了。 

5、by the time ―直到„„时候”。指从过去某一点到从句所示的时间为止的一段时间。      

By the time we got to his house, he had finished supper.    

当我们到他家时,他已经吃完了晚餐。 

6、表示意向的动词, 如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等, 用过去完成时表示 ―原本…,未能…。      

We had hoped that you would come, but you didn’t.  

我们曾希望你会来,但你没有。 

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