语气的定义和种类

5.1 语气的定义和种类 

动词的语气是动词的一种形式。根据说话意图的不同,动词需要不同的形式,这就是所谓的语气(mood)。关于语气的分类,不同的语法学有不同的看法,有的语法学家将语气分为陈述语气、疑问语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气四种,有的语法学家将语气分为陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气三种(即将“疑问语气”并在“陈述语气”之中)。 

1)陈述语气(indicative mood)用于陈述事实或提出看法。英语中的句子绝大部分都是陈述语气。我们在谈论时态和语态时,都主要是指陈述语气的动词变化。如: 

He did very well in the examination. 他考得很好。 

She heard the front door shut. 她听见大门给关上了。 

I wonder if I might use your phone. 不知可否用一下你的电话。 

He lived there happily for a year. 他在那儿愉快地居住了一年。 

2)疑问语气(interrogative mood)用于提出问题。英语中的疑问句均属于疑问语气。如: 

Where do you come from? 你是哪里人? 

Why are you so nervous? 你为什么这样紧张? 

What did you do that for? 你做这个干什么? 

How many windows are broken? 打破了多少扇窗户? 

Why don’t you think more about other people? 你怎么就不多为别人着想呢? 

3)祈使语气(imperative mood)用于提出命令、要求、请求、邀请、劝告或建议等。英语中的祈使句使用的就是祈使语气。在祈使语气中,动词要用原形,其否定式是在动词原形前加do not或don’t。 

Come and sit on the sofa. 来坐在沙发上。 

Get up and dress quickly. 起来,快穿好衣服。 

Let’s go to the cinema tonight. 今晚咱们去看电影。 

Try holding your breath to stop sneezing. 试着屏住呼吸以止住打喷嚏。 

Stop throwing stones at the cat, darling. 别往猫身上扔石头啊,亲爱的。 

Do not touch these wires. 请勿接触电线! 

Don’t get him talking about his illnesses. 不要让他谈他的病情。 

祈使语气的否定式有时用never 

Never trouble trouble till trouble troubles you. 不要无事惹事。 

Never speak to me like that again. 决不要再那个样子跟我说话。 

Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. 今日事,今日毕。 

4)虚拟语气(subjunctive mood)用于表示一种假想的情况或主观愿望。英语的虚拟语气用法比较有限,主要用于条件从句或某些特定的句型中。 

He behaves as though he were the owner. 他表现得就好像他是主人。 

I wish (that) I hadn’t spent so much money. 但愿我没花掉这么多钱就好了。 

If only I knew the answer to your question. 我要是知道你的问题的答案就好了。 

Long live the solidarity of the people of the world! 世界人民大团结万岁! 

If I had been taller, I would have joined the police force.  

如果我的具头儿再高一点,我就会当警察。 

If I were you I’d plant some trees round the house.  

如果我是你的话,我就会在房子周围种一些树。 

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