助动词

6.1 助动词   

助动词本身无词义,它只是用来帮助主要动词构成各种时态、语态、语气以及否定和疑问结构,助动词共有5个: be, have, shall, do, will。下面分别讲述这五个助动词的用法:  

6.1.1 be 的形式和用法   

助动词 be 八种形式   

 肯定式 缩略肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式  
原形 be    
现在式第一人称单数 am ‘m  am not aren’t  ‘m not 
现在式第三人称单数 he, she, it is ‘s is not isn’t  ‘s not 
现在式第二人称单、复数和第一、三人称复数 you, we, they are ‘re are not aren’t  ‘re not 
过去式第一、三人称单数 I, he, she, it  was  was not wasn’t 
过去式第二人称单、复数和第一、三人称复数 you, we, they were  were not  weren’t 
现在分词 being  not being  
过去分词 been  not been  

Note:在英国英语中,aren’t 使用很广泛。在美国英语中使用较多的是被认为非标准的 ain’t。  

助动词 be 的主要用法是:    

1)与现在分词构成各种进行时态及与have和现在分词构成完成进行进态   

(1) Fear of crime is slowly paralyzing American society.   

犯罪恐惧症正逐渐地使用美国社会陷于瘫痪。    

(2) The telephone had been ringing for three minutes before it was answereD.    

电话铃响了三分钟才有人接。   

2)与过去分词构成被动语态    

(1) He was an ardent fighter for freedom and indepen dence. He was loved by millions and hated only by a handful.  

他是个争取自由和独立的热诚战士,为成百万人所爱戴,为仅仅一小撮人所仇恨。    

(2) They came to Europe where their mother had been educated and stayed three years.    

他们来到他们的母亲受教育的欧洲,并待了三年。   

3)此外,be 还可用作连系动词,如:    

It was one of the happiest afternoons he had ever spent.   

那是他有生以来最愉快的一个下午。   

6.1.2 have 的形式和用法   

助动词 have 五种形式  

 肯定式 缩略肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式  
原形 have ‘ve have not haven’t   ‘ve not 
现在式第三人称单数  has ‘s has not hasn’t  ‘s not 
现在式第三人称单数  has ‘s has not hasn’t   ‘s not 
过去式 had ‘d had not hadn’t   ‘d not 
现在分词 having  not having  
过去分词 had    

助动词 have 的主要用法   

1)与过去分词构成各种完成时态    

(1) Newton has explained the movments of the moon from the attractions of the earth.  

牛顿阐明了月球受到地球引力而运行的规律。  

(2) Reluctantly, she opened the door, she had not kept it locked; there had been no need. 她勉强地开了门。她没有锁门,也没有必要锁门。   

2)与 been + 现在分词构成各种完成进行时态    

(1) Men have been digging salt out of it for six hundred years and yet there seems as much left as ever.   

人们在这里掘盐已六百年,但盐似乎还是那么多。    

(2) In another month’s time Mr Henry will have been tea ching here for exactly thirty years.  

再过一个月,享利先生就将在这里从事教学整30年了。    

3)此外,have 还可用作实义动词,意谓”有”、”吃”等   

(1) Bad news has wings. 丑事传千里。    

(2) You’re anaemic, you must have some iron. 你患贫血症了,应该服一些铁。    

4)have 还可用作使役动词    

(1) We now have the problem solved. 我们现已把这个问题解决了。   

(2) I had a tooth out this afternoon. 我今天下午拔了一颗牙。   

Note: have 用作实义动词时不能使用缩略式。词组 have to 有情态意义,详 见”情态动词”。   

6.1.3 do 的形式和用法   

助动词 do 三种形式   

 肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式 
原形 do do not don’t 
现在式第三人称单数 does does not doesn’t 
过去式 did did not didn’t 

Note: do 用作实义动词时有现在分词 doing 和过去分词 done.  

助动词 do 的主要用法    

1)构成现在一般时和过去一般时的疑问句    

(1) Do you always carry an umbrella? 你经常带伞吗? 

(2) Did everything come off all right? 一切都进行的有顺利吗?   

2)构成现在一般时和过去一般时的否定句    

(1) She didn’t cool down for hours after that argument.   

在那场争辩之后,她有好几个小时都没平静下来。    

(2) Don’t worry, he will be brought to book for his wickedness one day.   

别担心,他的恶行总有一天要受到惩罚的。   

3)用于替代,以避免重复    

(1) May I come round in the morning? 上午我可以来拜访你吗?         

Yes, please do. 可以,请来吧。(do 替代 come round)   

(2) I don’t like coffee and neither does my wife.   

我不喜欢咖啡,我妻子也不喜欢。(does 替代 like)   

4)用于强调    

(1) My parents think I didn’t study for my exams, but did study.   

我爸爸妈妈认为我考试前没有复习,但我是复习了。    

(2) Although I have little time for entertainment, I do go to the theatre once in a while.  

虽然我很省有时间娱乐,一但我有时间就去看戏。   

(3) We’re very pleased that she does intend to come.   

她的确打算来,我们非常高兴。    

(4) The letter we were expecting never did arrive.  

我们期待的信一直没有到。    

(5) Do you remember how kind she was? 你记得她多友善吗?   

I certainly do remember. 当然记得。   

5)用于恳求    

(1) Do come to the party tonight. 务请今晚来参加晚会。   

(2) Do be quiet! 请别作声!    

6)此外,do 还可用作实义动词,意谓”做”,”干”等等   

(1) She’s doing her knitting. 她正在编织衣物。   

(2) She interrupted him before his speech was done.  她不等他把话说完就打断了他。   

(3) Bad books do great harm. 坏书有很大害处。   

(4) Will you do me a favour? 你愿帮我个忙吗?   

(5) Jane is doing the dishes. 珍妮正在洗碟子。   

(6) I will is do my best. 我愿尽力而为。   

(7) That will do. 行了(或够了)。    

Note: 

如用其它时态,疑问句的助动词须提至主语前,否定句的助动词之后加 not。   

(1) Will he be able to hear at such a distance? 离这么远,他会听得到吗?    

(2) You haven’t been abroad before, have you? 你以前没出过国,是吗?   

6.1.4 shall(should)和will(would) 的形式和用法    

助动词 shall (过去式 should)和 will (过去式 would) 下列几种形式   

肯定式 缩略肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式 
shall ‘ll shall not shan’t 
should  should not shouldn’t 
will ‘ll will not won’t    ‘ll not 
would ‘d would not wouldn’t   ‘d not 

助动词 shall(should) 和 will (would) 可用于构成各种将来和过去将来时态, shall(should) 用于第一人称,will(would)用于第二、第三人称。在当代英语(尤其是美国英语中)will(would)常用于一切人称。  

1)shall 用于各种将来时态第一人称(当代英语多用will)  

(1) We shall be going away tomorrow by an early train.  我们将于明日搭早班火车离开。    

(2) I shall let you know as soon as I have heard from them.  我一接到他们的信、当即告诉你。    

2)should 用于各种过去将来时态的第一人称(当代英语多用would)   

(1) So this was the place where I should study for the three years.It made a bad first impression.  

后来,这就是我学习三年的地方,它给我的第一个印象可不好。   

(2) The BCC weather report this morning said that we should have rain.   

英国广播公司今晨的天气预报说,我们这儿将有雨。   

3)will 用于各种将来时态的第二、第三人称    

(1) They will be looking for anyone connected with her.   

他们将寻找每一个与她有往来的人。    

(2) The play is coming off in August – By then the play will have been running for three months.  

这个剧将于八月停演--到那时它将连演三个月了。    

4)would 用于各种过去将来时态的第二、第三人称   

(1) They said it would be fine. 人们说天气会很好。    

(2) They would have finished by five o’clock. 他们将于五时前完工。   

Note: shall (should) 和 will (would) 可用作情态动词。should 和 would 可以构成虚拟语气。

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