MR. Jones, of the Manor Farm, had locked the hen-houses for the night, but was too drunk to remember to shut the pop-holes. 介词结构作状语With the ring of light from his lantern 分词作宾补dancing from side to side, he lurched across the yard, kicked off his boots at the back door, drew himself a last glass of beer from the barrel in the scullery, and made his way up to bed, 定语从句where Mrs. Jones was already snoring.
时间状语从句As soon as the light in the bedroom went out there was a stirring and a fluttering all through the farm buildings. Word had gone round during the day 同位语从句修饰word that old Major, the prize Middle White boar, had had a strange dream on the previous night and wished to communicate it to the other animals. It had been agreed 主语从句that they should all meet in the big barn as soon as Mr. Jones was safely out of the way. Old Major (so he was always called, 让步状语从句though the name 定语从句under which he had been exhibited was Willingdon Beauty) was so highly regarded on the farm 结果状语从句that everyone was quite ready to lose an hour’s sleep in order to hear 宾语从句what he had to say.
At one end of the big barn, on a sort of raised platform, Major was already ensconced on his bed of straw, under a lantern 定语从句which hung from a beam. He was twelve years old and had lately grown rather stout, but he was still a majestic-looking pig, with a wise and benevolent appearance in spite of the fact 同位语从句that his tushes had never been cut. Before long the other animals began to arrive and make themselves comfortable after their different fashions. First came the three dogs, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher, and then the pigs, 定语从句who settled down in the straw immediately in front of the platform. The hens perched themselves on the window-sills, the pigeons fluttered up to the rafters, the sheep and cows lay down behind the pigs and began to chew the cud. The two cart-horses, Boxer and Clover, came in together, 分词状语walking very slowly and setting down their vast hairy hoofs with great care 目的状语从句lest there should be some small animal 被动分词concealed in the straw. Clover was a stout motherly mare 分词定语approaching middle life, 定语从句who had never quite got her figure back after her fourth foal. Boxer was an enormous beast, nearly eighteen hands high, and as strong as any two ordinary horses 被动分词put together. A white stripe down his nose gave him a somewhat stupid appearance, and in fact he was not of first-rate intelligence, but he was universally respected for his steadiness of character and tremendous powers of work. After the horses came Muriel, the white goat, and Benjamin, the donkey. Benjamin was the oldest animal on the farm, and the worst tempered. He seldom talked, and 时间状语从句when he did, it was usually to make some cynical remark–for instance, he would say 宾语从句that God had given him a tail to keep the flies off, but that he would sooner have had no tail and no flies. Alone among the animals on the farm he never laughed. 被动分词If asked why, he would say that he saw nothing to laugh at. Nevertheless, without openly admitting it, he was devoted to Boxer; the two of them usually spent their Sundays together in the small paddock beyond the orchard, 分词状语grazing side by side and never speaking.
The two horses had just lain down 状语从句when a brood of ducklings, 定语从句which had lost their mother, filed into the barn, 分词状语cheeping feebly and wandering from side to side to find some place 定语从句where they would not be trodden on. Clover made a sort of wall round them with her great foreleg, and the ducklings nestled down inside it and promptly fell asleep. At the last moment Mollie, 同位语the foolish, pretty white mare 定语从句who drew Mr. Jones’s trap, came mincing daintily in, chewing at a lump of sugar. She took a place near the front and began flirting her white mane, 分词状语hoping to draw attention to the red ribbons 定语从句it was plaited with. Last of all came the cat, 定语从句who looked round, as usual, for the warmest place, and finally squeezed herself in between Boxer and Clover; there she purred contentedly throughout Major’s speech without listening to a word of 宾语从句作介词宾语what he was saying.
All the animals were now present except Moses, the tame raven, 定语从句who slept on a perch behind the back door. 时间状语从句When Major saw that they had all made themselves comfortable and were waiting attentively, he cleared his throat and began:
“Comrades, you have heard already about the strange dream 定语从句that I had last night. But I will come to the dream later. I have something else to say first. I do not think, comrades, 宾语从句that I shall be with you for many months longer, and 时间状语从句before I die, I feel it my duty to pass on to you such wisdom 定语从句as I have acquired. I have had a long life, I have had much time for thought 时间状语从句as I lay alone in my stall, and I think 宾语从句I may say that I understand the nature of life on this earth as well as any animal now living. It is about this that I wish to speak to you.
“Now, comrades, what is the nature of this life of ours? Let us face it: our lives are miserable, laborious, and short. We are born, we are given just so much food as will keep the breath in our bodies, and those of us 定语从句who are capable of it are forced to work to the last atom of our strength; and the very instant that our usefulness has come to an end we are slaughtered with hideous cruelty. No animal in England knows the meaning of happiness or leisure after he is a year old. No animal in England is free. The life of an animal is misery and slavery: that is the plain truth.
“But is this simply part of the order of nature? Is it 表语从句because this land of ours is so poor 结果从句that it cannot afford a decent life to those who dwell upon it? No, comrades, a thousand times no! The soil of England is fertile, its climate is good, it is capable of affording food in abundance to an enormously greater number of animals 比较句than now inhabit it. This single farm of ours would support a dozen horses, twenty cows, hundreds of sheep–and all of them 分词状语living in a comfort and a dignity 定语从句that are now almost beyond our imagining. Why then do we continue in this miserable condition? Because nearly the whole of the produce of our labour 被动句is stolen from us by human beings. There, comrades, is the answer to all our problems. It is summed up in a single word–Man. Man is the only real enemy 定语从句we have. Remove Man from the scene, and the root cause of hunger and overwork is abolished for ever.
“Man is the only creature that consumes without producing. He does not give milk, he does not lay eggs, he is too weak to pull the plough, he cannot run fast enough to catch rabbits. Yet he is lord of all the animals. He sets them to work, he gives back to them the bare minimum 定语从句that will prevent them from starving, and the rest he keeps for himself. Our labour tills the soil, our dung fertilises it, and yet there is not one of us 定语从句that owns more than his bare skin. You cows 定语从句that I see before me, how many thousands of gallons of milk have you given during this last year? And what has happened to that milk 定语从句which should have been breeding up sturdy calves? Every drop of it has gone down the throats of our enemies. And you hens, how many eggs have you laid in this last year, and how many of those eggs ever 省略被动句hatched into chickens? The rest have all gone to market to bring in money for Jones and his men. And you, Clover, where are those four foals 定语从句you bore, who should have been the support and pleasure of your old age? Each was sold at a year old–you will never see one of them again. In return for your four confinements and all your labour in the fields, what have you ever had except your bare rations and a stall?
“And even the miserable lives 定语从句we lead are not allowed to reach their natural span. For myself I do not grumble, for I am one of the lucky ones. I am twelve years old and have had over four hundred children. Such is the natural life of a pig. But no animal escapes the cruel knife in the end. You young porkers who are sitting in front of me, every one of you will scream your lives out at the block within a year. To that horror we all must come– cows, pigs, hens, sheep, everyone. Even the horses and the dogs have no better fate. You, Boxer, 时间状语从句the very day that those great muscles of yours lose their power, Jones will sell you to the knacker, 定语从句who will cut your throat and boil you down for the foxhounds. As for the dogs, 时间状语从句when they grow old and toothless, Jones ties a brick round their necks and drowns them in the nearest pond.
“Is it not crystal clear, then, comrades, 主语从句that all the evils of this life of ours spring from the tyranny of human beings? Only get rid of Man, and the produce of our labour would be our own. Almost overnight we could become rich and free. What then must we do? Why, work night and day, body and soul, for the overthrow of the human race! That is my message to you, comrades: Rebellion! I do not know 宾语从句when that Rebellion will come, it might be in a week or in a hundred years, but I know, 比较状语从句as surely as I see this straw beneath my feet, 宾语从句that sooner or later justice will be done. Fix your eyes on that, comrades, through- out the short remainder of your lives! And above all, pass on this message of mine to those 定语从句who come after you, 结果状语从句so that future generations shall carry on the struggle 时间状语从句until it is victorious.
“And remember, comrades, your resolution must never falter. No argument must lead you astray. Never listen 时间状语从句when they tell you 宾语从句that Man and the animals have a common interest, that the prosperity of the one is the prosperity of the others. It is all lies. Man serves the interests of no creature except himself. And among us animals let there be perfect unity, perfect comradeship in the struggle. All men are enemies. All animals are comrades.”
At this moment there was a tremendous uproar. 时间状语从句While Major was speaking four large rats had crept out of their holes and were sitting on their hindquarters, listening to him. The dogs had suddenly caught sight of them, and it was only by a swift dash for their holes 结果状语从句that the rats saved their lives. Major raised his trotter for silence.
“Comrades,” he said, “here is a point that must be settled. The wild creatures, such as rats and rabbits–are they our friends or our enemies? Let us put it to the vote. I pro- pose this question to the meeting: Are rats comrades?”
The vote was taken at once, and it was agreed by an overwhelming majority 主语从句that rats were comrades. There were only four dissentients, 同位语the three dogs and the cat, 定语从句who was afterwards discovered to have voted on both sides. Major continued:
“I have little more to say. I merely repeat, remember always your duty of enmity towards Man and all his ways. 主语从句Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy. 主语从句Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend. And remember also 宾语从句that in fighting against Man, we must not come to resemble him. 条件状语从句Even when you have conquered him, do not adopt his vices. No animal must ever live in a house, or sleep in a bed, or wear clothes, or drink alcohol, or smoke tobacco, or touch money, or engage in trade. All the habits of Man are evil. And, above all, no animal must ever tyrannise over his own kind. Weak or strong, clever or simple, we are all brothers. No animal must ever kill any other animal. All animals are equal.
“And now, comrades, I will tell you about my dream of last night. I cannot describe that dream to you. It was a dream of the earth 定语从句as it will be 时间状语从句when Man has vanished. But it reminded me of something 定语从句that I had long forgotten. Many years ago, 时间状语从句when I was a little pig, my mother and the other sows used to sing an old song 定语从句of which they knew only the tune and the first three words. I had known that tune in my infancy, but it had long since passed out of my mind. Last night, however, it came back to me in my dream. And what is more, the words of the song also came back-words, I am certain, 定语从句which were sung by the animals of long ago and have been lost to memory for generations. I will sing you that song now, comrades. I am old and my voice is hoarse, but 时间状语从句when I have taught you the tune, you can sing it better for yourselves. It is called ‘Beasts of England’.”
Old Major cleared his throat and began to sing. 时间状语从句As he had said, his voice was hoarse, but he sang well enough, and it was a stirring tune, something between ‘Clementine’ and ‘La Cucaracha’. The words ran:
Beasts of England, beasts of Ireland, Beasts of every land and clime, Hearken to my joyful tidings Of the golden future time.
Soon or late the day is coming, Tyrant Man shall be o’erthrown, And the fruitful fields of England Shall be trod by beasts alone.
Rings shall vanish from our noses, And the harness from our back, Bit and spur shall rust forever, Cruel whips no more shall crack.
Riches more than mind can picture, Wheat and barley, oats and hay, Clover, beans, and mangel-wurzels Shall be ours upon that day.
Bright will shine the fields of England, Purer shall its waters be, Sweeter yet shall blow its breezes On the day 定语从句that sets us free.
For that day we all must labour, 让步从句Though we die before it break; Cows and horses, geese and turkeys, All must toil for freedom’s sake.
Beasts of England, beasts of Ireland, Beasts of every land and clime, Hearken well and spread my tidings Of the golden future time.
The singing of this song threw the animals into the wildest excitement. Almost 时间状语从句before Major had reached the end, they had begun singing it for themselves. Even the stupidest of them had already picked up the tune and a few of the words, and as for the clever ones, such as the pigs and dogs, they had the entire song by heart within a few minutes. And then, after a few preliminary tries, the whole farm burst out into ‘Beasts of England’ in tremendous unison. The cows lowed it, the dogs whined it, the sheep bleated it, the horses whinnied it, the ducks quacked it. They were so delighted with the song 结果状语从句that they sang it right through five times in succession, and might have continued singing it all night 条件状语从句if they had not been interrupted.
Unfortunately, the uproar awoke Mr. Jones, who sprang out of bed, 分词状语making sure that there was a fox in the yard. He seized the gun 定语从句which always stood in a corner of his bedroom, and let fly a charge of number 6 shot into the darkness. The pellets buried themselves in the wall of the barn and the meeting broke up hurriedly. Everyone fled to his own sleeping-place. The birds jumped on to their perches, the animals settled down in the straw, and the whole farm was asleep in a moment.