虚拟语气在条件句中的应用

5.2 虚拟语气在条件句中的应用      

条件句有真实条件句与非真实条件句(或称虚拟条件句)两种。真实条件句所表的假设是可能发生或实现的,句中的条件从句与结果主句都用陈述语气。      

If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, I will go for a picnic.  

假若明天不下雨,我就去野餐。    

Oil floats if you pour it on water.  

你如把油倒在水里,油就浮起来。    

虚拟条件句所表的假设则是不可能或不大可能发生或实现的,句中的条件从句与结果主句皆须用虚拟语气。  

 时态  条件从句 主句 
与现在事实相反  If 主语 +动词过去式(be的过去式用were) should (would, might, could)+动词原 形  
与过去事实相反  If 主语 +had+过去分词 should ( would, might, could)+ have + 过去分词 
与将来事实可能相反 If 主语 +动词过去式(be的过去式用were); should+动词原形;were to+动词原形  should (would, might, could)+动词原形  

1)与现在事实相反的虚拟条件句,条件从句的谓语用动词的过去式 (be的过去式用were), 主句的谓语用should (would, might,could)+动词原形。  如:    

If it were not raining, we should go for a picnic. 

如果现在不下雨的话,我们就出去野餐了。   (事实是:天在下雨,我们不能出去野餐。表示愿望。)    

If he came here, he might be able to help you.  

如果他来这,他就能够帮助你了。   (事实是:他没来这,他不可能帮助你。表示对他的良好印象。)   

2)与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句,条件从句的谓语用had+过去分词,主句的谓语用should ( would, might, could)+ have +过去分词。 

She would have gone to the party if she had been invited.      

要是当初她被邀请的话,她就会去参加这次聚会了。   (事实是:当时没有人邀请她,因此,她没有来参加聚会。表示后悔。)    

If she hadn’t called me, I would have overslept this morning.      

今天早上,她要是不叫我的话,我就会睡过头了。   (事实是:她今天早上叫我了,我没有睡过头。表示感激。)   

3)与将来事实可能相反的虚拟条件句,条件从句的谓语用动词的过去式(be的过去式用were); should+动词原形;wereto+动词原形,主句用should (would, might, could)+动词原形。   如:    

If I were to be twenty years old next year, I would take the course of French.      

明年我要是二十岁,我就会学法语。   (事实是:我现在已经老了,明年我学不了法语了。)    

If it should fail, I would try again.要是失败了,我会再试一次。   (事实是:有可能失败,可我会再试。表示未知。)    

虚拟过去式有时并不表示“不大可能实现的假设”,而是表示一种希望或不希望发生的动作。   如:    

If we caught the early train, we’d get there by lunch time.   

假如我们赶上早班火车,到午饭时间我们就会到达那里了。(表希望)   

If we missed the train, we should have to wait an hour at the station.   

假如我们赶不上这班火车,我们就得在车站等一小时。(表不希望)   

4)混合型的条件句    

当条件从句与主句所表的时间不一致时,虚拟语气的形式应作相应的调整。主句和从句的谓语动词并不相互呼应,这种条件句叫混合条件句。较多见的混合型条件句是从句用过去完成时(指过去行为),而主句用一般时(指目前状态)。    

He would pass the test if he had taken my advice. 

如果他听了我的劝告,他现在会通过考试。 

If I had spoken to him yesterday, I should know what to do now.    

假如昨天我对他说了,现在我就知道该怎么办了。    

You would be much better now if you had taken my advice.    

假如你接受了我的意见,你现在就会好得多。    

如条件从句用if I were…,主句则可用表任何时间的虚拟形式。        

If I were not busy, I would have come.   

假如我不忙,我就会去了。(were表过去)   

If I were you, I would go.   

假如我是你,我会去的。(were表现在)  

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