It was a bitter winter. The stormy weather was followed by sleet and snow, and then by a hard frost 定语从句which did not break till well into February. The animals carried on 比较从句as best they could with the rebuilding of the windmill, 分词状语well knowing 宾语从句that the outside world was watching them and that the envious human beings would rejoice and triumph if the mill were not finished on time.

Out of spite, the human beings pretended not to believe 宾语从句that it was Snowball 强调句who had destroyed the windmill: they said 宾语从句that it had fallen down 原因从句because the walls were too thin. The animals knew 宾语从句that this was not the case. Still, it had been decided to build the walls three feet thick this time instead of eighteen inches as before, 定语从句which meant collecting much larger quantities of stone. For a long time the quarry was full of snowdrifts and nothing could be done. Some progress was made in the dry frosty weather 定语从句that followed, but it was cruel work, and the animals could not feel so hopeful about it 比较从句as they had felt before. They were always cold, and usually hungry as well. Only Boxer and Clover never lost heart. Squealer made excellent speeches on the joy of service and the dignity of labour, but the other animals found more inspiration in Boxer’s strength and his never-failing cry of “I will work harder!”

In January food fell short. The corn ration was drastically reduced, and it was announced 主语从句that an extra potato ration would be issued to make up for it. Then it was discovered that the greater part of the potato crop had been frosted in the clamps, 定语从句which had not been covered thickly enough. The potatoes had become soft and discoloured, and only a few were edible. For days at a time the animals had nothing to eat but chaff and mangels. Starvation seemed to stare them in the face.

It was vitally necessary to conceal this fact from the outside world. 分词状语Emboldened by the collapse of the windmill, the human beings were inventing fresh lies about Animal Farm. Once again it was being put about 主语从句that all the animals were dying of famine and disease, and that they were continually fighting among themselves and had resorted to cannibalism and infanticide. Napoleon was well aware of the bad results 定语从句that might follow 条件状语if the real facts of the food situation were known, and he decided to make use of Mr. Whymper to spread a contrary impression. Hitherto the animals had had little or no contact with Whymper on his weekly visits: now, however, a few selected animals, mostly sheep, were instructed to remark casually in his hearing 宾语从句that rations had been increased. In addition, Napoleon ordered the almost empty bins in the store-shed to be filled nearly to the brim with sand, 定语从句which was then covered up with what remained of the grain and meal. On some suitable pretext Whymper was led through the store-shed and allowed to catch a glimpse of the bins. He was deceived, and continued to report to the outside world 宾语从句that there was no food shortage on Animal Farm.

Nevertheless, towards the end of January it became obvious 主语从句that it would be necessary to procure some more grain from somewhere. In these days Napoleon rarely appeared in public, but spent all his time in the farmhouse, 定语从句which was guarded at each door by fierce-looking dogs. 时间状语从句When he did emerge, it was in a ceremonial manner, with an escort of six dogs 定语从句who closely surrounded him and growled 条件状语从句if anyone came too near. Frequently he did not even appear on Sunday mornings, but issued his orders through one of the other pigs, usually Squealer.






One Sunday morning Squealer announced 宾语从句that the hens, 定语从句who had just come in to lay again, must surrender their eggs. Napoleon had accepted, through Whymper, a contract for four hundred eggs a week. The price of these would pay for enough grain and meal to keep the farm going 时间从句till summer came on and conditions were easier.

时间从句When the hens heard this, they raised a terrible outcry. They had been warned earlier 宾语从句that this sacrifice might be necessary, but had not believed 宾语从句that it would really happen. They were just getting their clutches ready for the spring sitting, and they protested 宾语从句that to take the eggs away now was murder. For the first time since the expulsion of Jones, there was something 分词定语resembling a rebellion. 分词状语Led by three young Black Minorca pullets, the hens made a determined effort to thwart Napoleon’s wishes. Their method was to fly up to the rafters and there lay their eggs, 定语从句which smashed to pieces on the floor. Napoleon acted swiftly and ruthlessly. He ordered the hens’ rations to be stopped, and decreed 宾语从句that any animal 分词定语giving so much as a grain of corn to a hen should be punished by death. The dogs saw to it 宾语从句that these orders were carried out. For five days the hens held out, then they capitulated and went back to their nesting boxes. Nine hens had died in the meantime. Their bodies were buried in the orchard, and it was given out 主语从句that they had died of coccidiosis. Whymper heard nothing of this affair, and the eggs were duly delivered, a grocer’s van driving up to the farm once a week to take them away.

All this while no more had been seen of Snowball. He was rumoured to be hiding on one of the neighbouring farms, either Foxwood or Pinchfield. Napoleon was by this time on slightly better terms with the other farmers than before. It happened 主语从句that there was in the yard a pile of timber 定语从句which had been stacked there ten years earlier when a beech spinney was cleared. It was well seasoned, and Whymper had advised Napoleon to sell it; both Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick were anxious to buy it. Napoleon was hesitating between the two, unable to make up his mind. It was noticed 主语从句that 状语从句whenever he seemed on the point of coming to an agreement with Frederick, Snowball was declared to be in hiding at Foxwood, while, 状语从句when he inclined toward Pilkington, Snowball was said to be at Pinchfield.

Suddenly, early in the spring, an alarming thing was discovered. Snowball was secretly frequenting the farm by night! The animals were so disturbed 程度状语that they could hardly sleep in their stalls. Every night, it was said, 主语从句he came creeping in under cover of darkness and performed all kinds of mischief. He stole the corn, he upset the milk-pails, he broke the eggs, he trampled the seedbeds, he gnawed the bark off the fruit trees. 时间状语从句Whenever anything went wrong it became usual to attribute it to Snowball. 条件状语从句If a window was broken or a drain was blocked up, someone was certain to say that Snowball had come in the night and done it, and 时间状语从句when the key of the store-shed was lost, the whole farm was convinced 补语从句that Snowball had thrown it down the well. Curiously enough, they went on believing this even 时间状语从句after the mislaid key was found under a sack of meal. The cows declared unanimously 宾语从句that Snowball crept into their stalls and milked them in their sleep. The rats, 定语从句which had been troublesome that winter, were also said to be in league with Snowball.





Napoleon decreed 宾语从句that there should be a full investigation into Snowball’s activities. With his dogs in attendance he set out and made a careful tour of inspection of the farm buildings, the other animals following at a respectful distance. At every few steps Napoleon stopped and snuffed the ground for traces of Snowball’s footsteps, 定语从句which, he said, he could detect by the smell. He snuffed in every corner, in the barn, in the cow-shed, in the henhouses, in the vegetable garden, and found traces of Snowball almost everywhere. He would put his snout to the ground, give several deep sniffs, ad exclaim in a terrible voice, “Snowball! He has been here! I can smell him distinctly!” and at the word “Snowball” all the dogs let out blood-curdling growls and showed their side teeth.

The animals were thoroughly frightened. It seemed to them 表语从句as though Snowball were some kind of invisible influence, pervading the air about them and menacing them with all kinds of dangers. In the evening Squealer called them together, and with an alarmed expression on his face told them 宾语从句that he had some serious news to report.

“Comrades!” cried Squealer, 分词状语making little nervous skips, “a most terrible thing has been discovered. Snowball has sold himself to Frederick of Pinchfield Farm, 定语从句who is even now plotting to attack us and take our farm away from us! Snowball is to act as his guide 时间从句when the attack begins. But there is worse than that. We had thought 宾语从句that Snowball’s rebellion was caused simply by his vanity and ambition. But we were wrong, comrades. Do you know 宾语从句what the real reason was? Snowball was in league with Jones from the very start! He was Jones’s secret agent all the time. It has all been proved by documents 定语从句which he left behind him and which we have only just discovered. To my mind this explains a great deal, comrades. Did we not see for ourselves 宾语从句how he attempted–fortunately without success–to get us defeated and destroyed at the Battle of the Cowshed?”

The animals were stupefied. This was a wickedness 分词定语far outdoing Snowball’s destruction of the windmill. But it was some minutes 时间从句before they could fully take it in. They all remembered, or thought 宾语从句they remembered, 宾语从句how they had seen Snowball charging ahead of them at the Battle of the Cowshed, how he had rallied and encouraged them at every turn, and how he had not paused for an instant even when the pellets from Jones’s gun had wounded his back. At first it was a little difficult 不定式主语to see 宾语从句how this fitted in with his being on Jones’s side. Even Boxer, 定语从句who seldom asked questions, was puzzled. He lay down, tucked his fore hoofs beneath him, shut his eyes, and with a hard effort managed to formulate his thoughts.

“I do not believe that,” he said. “Snowball fought bravely at the Battle of the Cowshed. I saw him myself. Did we not give him ‘Animal Hero, first Class,’ immediately afterwards?”

“That was our mistake, comrade. For we know now–it is all written down in the secret documents 定语从句that we have found–主语从句that in reality he was trying to lure us to our doom.

“But he was wounded,” said Boxer. “We all saw him 宾语补语running with blood.”

“That was part of the arrangement!” cried Squealer. “Jones’s shot only grazed him. I could show you this in his own writing, 条件从句if you were able to read it. The plot was for Snowball, at the critical moment, to give the signal for flight and leave the field to the enemy. And he very nearly succeeded–I will even say, comrades, he WOULD have succeeded 虚拟条件从句if it had not been for our heroic Leader, Comrade Napoleon. Do you not remember 宾语从句how, just at the moment 定语从句when Jones and his men had got inside the yard, Snowball suddenly turned and fled, and many animals followed him? And do you not remember, too, 宾语从句that it was just at that moment, 定语从句when panic was spreading and all seemed lost, that Comrade Napoleon sprang forward with a cry of ‘Death to Humanity!’ and sank his teeth in Jones’s leg? Surely you remember THAT, comrades?” exclaimed Squealer, 分词状语frisking from side to side.









Now 时间从句when Squealer described the scene so graphically, it seemed to the animals 表语从句that they did remember it. At any rate, they remembered 宾语从句that at the critical moment of the battle Snowball had turned to flee. But Boxer was still a little uneasy.

“I do not believe that Snowball was a traitor at the beginning,” he said finally. “主语从句What he has done since is different. But I believe 宾语从句that at the Battle of the Cowshed he was a good comrade.

“Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon,” announced Squealer, 分词状语speaking very slowly and firmly, “has stated categorically–categorically, comrade–that Snowball was Jones’s agent from the very beginning–yes, and from long 时间从句before the Rebellion was ever thought of.”

“Ah, that is different!” said Boxer. “条件从句If Comrade Napoleon says it, it must be right.”

“That is the true spirit, comrade!” cried Squealer, but it was noticed 主语从句he cast a very ugly look at Boxer with his little twinkling eyes. He turned to go, then paused and added impressively: “I warn every animal on this farm to keep his eyes very wide open. For we have reason to think 宾语从句that some of Snowball’s secret agents are lurking among us at this moment!”

Four days later, in the late afternoon, Napoleon ordered all the animals to assemble in the yard. 时间从句When they were all gathered together, Napoleon emerged from the farmhouse, wearing both his medals (for he had recently awarded himself “Animal Hero, First Class”, and “Animal Hero, Second Class”), with his nine huge dogs frisking round him and uttering growls that sent shivers down all the animals’ spines. They all cowered silently in their places, 分词状语seeming to know in advance 宾语从句that some terrible thing was about to happen.

Napoleon stood sternly surveying his audience; then he uttered a high-pitched whimper. Immediately the dogs bounded forward, seized four of the pigs by the ear and dragged them, 分词状语squealing with pain and terror, to Napoleon’s feet. The pigs’ ears were bleeding, the dogs had tasted blood, and for a few moments they appeared to go quite mad. To the amazement of everybody, three of them flung themselves upon Boxer. Boxer saw them coming and put out his great hoof, caught a dog in mid-air, and pinned him to the ground. The dog shrieked for mercy and the other two fled with their tails between their legs. Boxer looked at Napoleon to know 宾语从句whether he should crush the dog to death or let it go. Napoleon appeared to change countenance, and sharply ordered Boxer to let the dog go, 时间从句whereat Boxer lifted his hoof, and the dog slunk away, bruised and howling.

Presently the tumult died down. The four pigs waited, 分词状语trembling, with guilt written on every line of their countenances. Napoleon now called upon them to confess their crimes. They were the same four pigs 定语从句as had protested 时间从句when Napoleon abolished the Sunday Meetings. Without any further prompting they confessed 宾语从句that they had been secretly in touch with Snowball ever since his expulsion, that they had collaborated with him in destroying the windmill, and that they had entered into an agreement with him to hand over Animal Farm to Mr. Frederick. They added that Snowball had privately admitted to them 宾语从句that he had been Jones’s secret agent for years past. 时间从句When they had finished their confession, the dogs promptly tore their throats out, and in a terrible voice Napoleon demanded 宾语从句whether any other animal had anything to confess.









The three hens 定语从句who had been the ringleaders in the attempted rebellion over the eggs now came forward and stated that Snowball had appeared to them in a dream and incited them to disobey Napoleon’s orders. They, too, were slaughtered. Then a goose came forward and confessed to having secreted six ears of corn during the last year’s harvest and eaten them in the night. Then a sheep confessed to having urinated in the drinking pool–分词状语urged to do this, so she said, by Snowball–and two other sheep confessed to having murdered an old ram, an especially devoted follower of Napoleon, by chasing him round and round a bonfire 时间从句when he was suffering from a cough. They were all slain on the spot. And so the tale of confessions and executions went on, 时间从句until there was a pile of corpses lying before Napoleon’s feet and the air was heavy with the smell of blood, 定语从句which had been unknown there since the expulsion of Jones.

When it was all over, the remaining animals, except for the pigs and dogs, crept away in a body. They were shaken and miserable. They did not know 宾语从句which was more shocking–the treachery of the animals 定语从句who had leagued themselves with Snowball, or the cruel retribution 定语从句they had just witnessed. In the old days there had often been scenes of bloodshed equally terrible, but it seemed to all of them 表语从句that it was far worse now 主语从句that it was happening among themselves. 时间从句Since Jones had left the farm, until today, no animal had killed another animal. Not even a rat had been killed. They had made their way on to the little knoll 定语从句where the half-finished windmill stood, and with one accord they all lay down as though huddling together for warmth–Clover, Muriel, Benjamin, the cows, the sheep, and a whole flock of geese and hens–everyone, indeed, except the cat, 定语从句who had suddenly disappeared just before Napoleon ordered the animals to assemble. For some time nobody spoke. Only Boxer remained on his feet. He fidgeted to and fro, 分词状语swishing his long black tail against his sides and occasionally uttering a little whinny of surprise. Finally he said:

“I do not understand it. I would not have believed 宾语从句that such things could happen on our farm. It must be due to some fault in ourselves. The solution, as I see it, is to work harder. From now onwards I shall get up a full hour earlier in the mornings.”

And he moved off at his lumbering trot and made for the quarry. 分词状语Having got there, he collected two successive loads of stone and dragged them down to the windmill before retiring for the night.

The animals huddled about Clover, 分词状语not speaking. The knoll 定语从句where they were lying gave them a wide prospect across the countryside. Most of Animal Farm was within their view–the long pasture stretching down to the main road, the hayfield, the spinney, the drinking pool, the ploughed fields 定语从句where the young wheat was thick and green, and the red roofs of the farm buildings with the smoke curling from the chimneys. It was a clear spring evening. The grass and the bursting hedges were gilded by the level rays of the sun. Never had the farm–and with a kind of surprise they remembered 宾语从句that it was their own farm, every inch of it their own property–appeared to the animals so desirable a place. 时间从句As Clover looked down the hillside her eyes filled with tears. 条件从句If she could have spoken her thoughts, it would have been to say 宾语从句that this was not what they had aimed at 时间从句when they had set themselves years ago to work for the overthrow of the human race. These scenes of terror and slaughter were not 表语从句what they had looked forward to on that night 定语从句when old Major first stirred them to rebellion. 条件从句If she herself had had any picture of the future, it had been of a society of animals 分词定语set free from hunger and the whip, all equal, each working according to his capacity, the strong protecting the weak, 比较从句as she had protected the lost brood of ducklings with her foreleg on the night of Major’s speech. Instead–she did not know why–they had come to a time 定语从句when no one dared speak his mind, when fierce, growling dogs roamed everywhere, and when you had to watch your comrades torn to pieces after confessing to shocking crimes. There was no thought of rebellion or disobedience in her mind. She knew 宾语从句that, 让步从句even as things were, they were far better off than they had been in the days of Jones, and that before all else it was needful to prevent the return of the human beings. 让步从句Whatever happened she would remain faithful, work hard, carry out the orders 定语从句that were given to her, and accept the leadership of Napoleon. But still, it was not for this 主语从句that she and all the other animals had hoped and toiled. It was not for this 主语从句that they had built the windmill and faced the bullets of Jones’s gun. Such were her thoughts, 让步从句though she lacked the words to express them.






At last, 分词状语feeling this to be in some way a substitute for the words she was unable to find, she began to sing ‘Beasts of England’. The other animals sitting round her took it up, and they sang it three times over–very tunefully, but slowly and mournfully, in a way 定语从句they had never sung it before.

They had just finished singing it for the third time 时间从句when Squealer, attended by two dogs, approached them with the air of having something important to say. He announced that, by a special decree of Comrade Napoleon, ‘Beasts of England’ had been abolished. From now onwards it was forbidden to sing it.

The animals were taken aback.

“Why?” cried Muriel.

“It’s no longer needed, comrade,” said Squealer stiffly. “‘Beasts of England’ was the song of the Rebellion. But the Rebellion is now completed. The execution of the traitors this afternoon was the final act. The enemy both external and internal has been defeated. In ‘Beasts of England’ we expressed our longing for a better society in days to come. But that society has now been established. Clearly this song has no longer any purpose.”

让步从句Frightened though they were, some of the animals might possibly have protested, but at this moment the sheep set up their usual bleating of “Four legs good, two legs bad,” 定语从句which went on for several minutes and put an end to the discussion.

So ‘Beasts of England’ was heard no more. In its place Minimus, the poet, had composed another song 定语从句which began:

Animal Farm, Animal Farm,
Never through me shalt thou come to harm!

and this was sung every Sunday morning after the hoisting of the flag. But somehow neither the words nor the tune ever seemed to the animals to come up to ‘Beasts of England’.










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