All that year the animals worked like slaves. But they were happy in their work; they grudged no effort or sacrifice, well aware 补语从句that everything 定语从句that they did was for the benefit of themselves and those of their kind 定语从句who would come after them, and not for a pack of idle, thieving human beings.

Throughout the spring and summer they worked a sixty-hour week, and in August Napoleon announced 宾语从句that there would be work on Sunday afternoons as well. This work was strictly voluntary, but any animal 定语从句who absented himself from it would have his rations reduced by half. Even so, it was found necessary 不定式主语to leave certain tasks undone. The harvest was a little less successful than in the previous year, and two fields 定语从句which should have been sown with roots in the early summer were not sown 原因从句because the ploughing had not been completed early enough. It was possible 不定式主语to foresee that the coming winter would be a hard one.

The windmill presented unexpected difficulties. There was a good quarry of limestone on the farm, and plenty of sand and cement had been found in one of the outhouses, 结果从句so that all the materials for building were at hand. But the problem 定语从句the animals could not at first solve was how to break up the stone into pieces of suitable size. There seemed no way of doing this except with picks and crowbars, 定语从句which no animal could use, 原因从句because no animal could stand on his hind legs. Only after weeks of vain effort did the right idea occur to somebody-namely, to utilise the force of gravity. Huge boulders, far too big to be used as they were, were lying all over the bed of the quarry. The animals lashed ropes round these, and then all together, cows, horses, sheep, any animal 定语从句that could lay hold of the rope–even the pigs sometimes joined in at critical moments–they dragged them with desperate slowness up the slope to the top of the quarry, 定语从句where they were toppled over the edge, to shatter to pieces below. Transporting the stone 时间从句when it was once broken was comparatively simple. The horses carried it off in cart-loads, the sheep dragged single blocks, even Muriel and Benjamin yoked themselves into an old governess-cart and did their share. By late summer a sufficient store of stone had accumulated, and then the building began, under the superintendence of the pigs.

But it was a slow, laborious process. Frequently it took a whole day of exhausting effort to drag a single boulder to the top of the quarry, and sometimes 时间从句when it was pushed over the edge it failed to break. Nothing could have been achieved without Boxer, 定语从句whose strength seemed equal to that of all the rest of the animals 分词定语put together. 时间从句When the boulder began to slip and the animals cried out in despair at finding themselves dragged down the hill, it was always Boxer 强调句who strained himself against the rope and brought the boulder to a stop. To see him toiling up the slope inch by inch, his breath coming fast, the tips of his hoofs clawing at the ground, and his great sides matted with sweat, filled everyone with admiration. Clover warned him sometimes to be careful not to overstrain himself, but Boxer would never listen to her. His two slogans, “I will work harder” and “Napoleon is always right,” seemed to him a sufficient answer to all problems. He had made arrangements with the cockerel to call him three-quarters of an hour earlier in the mornings instead of half an hour. And in his spare moments, 定语从句of which there were not many nowadays, he would go alone to the quarry, collect a load of broken stone, and drag it down to the site of the windmill unassisted.






The animals were not badly off throughout that summer, in spite of the hardness of their work. 条件从句If they had no more food than they had had in Jones’s day, at least they did not have less. The advantage of only having to feed themselves, and not having to support five extravagant human beings as well, was so great 结果从句that it would have taken a lot of failures to outweigh it. And in many ways the animal method of doing things was more efficient and saved labour. Such jobs as weeding, for instance, could be done with a thoroughness impossible to human beings. And again, since no animal now stole, it was unnecessary 不定式主语to fence off pasture from arable land, 定语从句which saved a lot of labour on the upkeep of hedges and gates. Nevertheless, as the summer wore on, various unforeseen shortages began to make them selves felt. There was need of paraffin oil, nails, string, dog biscuits, and iron for the horses’ shoes, 定语从句none of which could be produced on the farm. Later there would also be need for seeds and artificial manures, besides various tools and, finally, the machinery for the windmill. 宾语从句How these were to be procured, no one was able to imagine.

One Sunday morning, 时间从句when the animals assembled to receive their orders, Napoleon announced 宾语从句that he had decided upon a new policy. From now onwards Animal Farm would engage in trade with the neighbouring farms: not, of course, for any commercial purpose, but simply in order to obtain certain materials 定语从句which were urgently necessary. The needs of the windmill must override everything else, he said. He was therefore making arrangements to sell a stack of hay and part of the current year’s wheat crop, and later on, 条件从句if more money were needed, it would have to be made up by the sale of eggs, 定语从句for which there was always a market in Willingdon. The hens, said Napoleon, should welcome this sacrifice as their own special contribution towards the building of the windmill.

Once again the animals were conscious of a vague uneasiness. Never to have any dealings with human beings, never to engage in trade, never to make use of money–had not these been among the earliest resolutions passed at that first triumphant Meeting 时间从句after Jones was expelled? All the animals remembered passing such resolutions: or at least they thought 宾语从句that they remembered it. The four young pigs 定语从句who had protested 时间从句when Napoleon abolished the Meetings raised their voices timidly, but they were promptly silenced by a tremendous growling from the dogs. Then, as usual, the sheep broke into “Four legs good, two legs bad!” and the momentary awkwardness was smoothed over. Finally Napoleon raised his trotter for silence and announced 宾语从句that he had already made all the arrangements. There would be no need for any of the animals to come in contact with human beings, 定语从句which would clearly be most undesirable. He intended to take the whole burden upon his own shoulders. A Mr. Whymper, a solicitor 分词定语living in Willingdon, had agreed to act as intermediary between Animal Farm and the outside world, and would visit the farm every Monday morning to receive his instructions. Napoleon ended his speech with his usual cry of “Long live Animal Farm!” and 时间从句after the singing of ‘Beasts of England’ the animals were dismissed.

Afterwards Squealer made a round of the farm and set the animals’ minds at rest. He assured them 宾语从句that the resolution against engaging in trade and using money had never been passed, or even suggested. It was pure imagination, probably traceable in the beginning to lies 分词定语circulated by Snowball. A few animals still felt faintly doubtful, but Squealer asked them shrewdly, “Are you certain 补语从句that this is not something 定语从句that you have dreamed, comrades? Have you any record of such a resolution? Is it written down anywhere?” And 原因从句since it was certainly true 主语从句that nothing of the kind existed in writing, the animals were satisfied 补语从句that they had been mistaken.





Every Monday Mr. Whymper visited the farm 比较从句as had been arranged. He was a sly-looking little man with side whiskers, a solicitor in a very small way of business, but sharp enough to have realised earlier than anyone else 宾语从句that Animal Farm would need a broker and that the commissions would be worth having. The animals watched his coming and going with a kind of dread, and avoided him as much as possible. Nevertheless, the sight of Napoleon, on all fours, delivering orders to Whymper, 定语从句who stood on two legs, roused their pride and partly reconciled them to the new arrangement. Their relations with the human race were now not quite the same 比较从句as they had been before. The human beings did not hate Animal Farm any less 原因从句now that it was prospering; indeed, they hated it more than ever. Every human being held it as an article of faith 同位语从句that the farm would go bankrupt sooner or later, and, above all, that the windmill would be a failure. They would meet in the public-houses and prove to one another by means of diagrams 宾语从句that the windmill was bound to fall down, or that 条件从句if it did stand up, then that it would never work. And yet, against their will, they had developed a certain respect for the efficiency 定语从句with which the animals were managing their own affairs. One symptom of this was 谓语从句that they had begun to call Animal Farm by its proper name and ceased to pretend 宾语从句that it was called the Manor Farm. They had also dropped their championship of Jones, 定语从句who had given up hope of getting his farm back and gone to live in another part of the county. Except through Whymper, there was as yet no contact between Animal Farm and the outside world, but there were constant rumours 同位语从句that Napoleon was about to enter into a definite business agreement either with Mr. Pilkington of Foxwood or with Mr. Frederick of Pinchfield–but never, it was noticed, with both simultaneously.

It was about this time 主语从句that the pigs suddenly moved into the farmhouse and took up their residence there. Again the animals seemed to remember 宾语从句that a resolution against this had been passed in the early days, and again Squealer was able to convince them 宾语从句that this was not the case. It was absolutely necessary, he said, 主语从句that the pigs, 定语从句who were the brains of the farm, should have a quiet place to work in. It was also more suited to the dignity of the Leader (for of late he had taken to speaking of Napoleon under the title of “Leader”) 不定式主语to live in a house than in a mere sty. Nevertheless, some of the animals were disturbed 时间从句when they heard 宾语从句that the pigs not only took their meals in the kitchen and used the drawing-room as a recreation room, but also slept in the beds. Boxer passed it off as usual with “Napoleon is always right!”, but Clover, 定语从句who thought she remembered a definite ruling against beds, went to the end of the barn and tried to puzzle out the Seven Commandments 定语从句which were inscribed there. 分词状语Finding herself unable to read more than individual letters, she fetched Muriel.

“Muriel,” she said, “read me the Fourth Commandment. Does it not say something about never sleeping in a bed?”

With some difficulty Muriel spelt it out.

“It says, ‘No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets,”‘ she announced finally.

Curiously enough, Clover had not remembered 宾语从句that the Fourth Commandment mentioned sheets; but 原因从句as it was there on the wall, it must have done so. And Squealer, 定语从句who happened to be passing at this moment, attended by two or three dogs, was able to put the whole matter in its proper perspective.







“You have heard then, comrades,” he said, “宾语从句that we pigs now sleep in the beds of the farmhouse? And why not? You did not suppose, surely, 宾语从句that there was ever a ruling against beds? A bed merely means a place to sleep in. A pile of straw in a stall is a bed, properly regarded. The rule was against sheets, 定语从句which are a human invention. We have removed the sheets from the farmhouse beds, and sleep between blankets. And very comfortable beds they are too! But not more comfortable than we need, I can tell you, comrades, with all the brainwork we have to do nowadays. You would not rob us of our repose, would you, comrades? You would not have us too tired to carry out our duties? Surely none of you wishes to see Jones back?”

The animals reassured him on this point immediately, and no more was said about the pigs sleeping in the farmhouse beds. And 时间从句when, some days afterwards, it was announced 主语从句that from now on the pigs would get up an hour later in the mornings than the other animals, no complaint was made about that either.

By the autumn the animals were tired but happy. They had had a hard year, and after the sale of part of the hay and corn, the stores of food for the winter were none too plentiful, but the windmill compensated for everything. It was almost half built now. After the harvest there was a stretch of clear dry weather, and the animals toiled harder than ever, 分词状语thinking it well worth while 主语从句to plod to and fro all day with blocks of stone 条件从句if by doing so they could raise the walls another foot. Boxer would even come out at nights and work for an hour or two on his own by the light of the harvest moon. In their spare moments the animals would walk round and round the half-finished mill, 分词状语admiring the strength and perpendicularity of its walls and marvelling 宾语从句that they should ever have been able to build anything so imposing. Only old Benjamin refused to grow enthusiastic about the windmill, though, as usual, he would utter nothing beyond the cryptic remark 同位语从句that donkeys live a long time.

November came, with raging south-west winds. Building had to stop 原因从句because it was now too wet to mix the cement. Finally there came a night 定语从句when the gale was so violent 结果从句that the farm buildings rocked on their foundations and several tiles were blown off the roof of the barn. The hens woke up squawking with terror 原因从句because they had all dreamed simultaneously of hearing a gun go off in the distance. In the morning the animals came out of their stalls to find 宾语从句that the flagstaff had been blown down and an elm tree at the foot of the orchard had been plucked up like a radish. They had just noticed this 时间从句when a cry of despair broke from every animal’s throat. A terrible sight had met their eyes. The windmill was in ruins.

With one accord they dashed down to the spot. Napoleon, 定语从句who seldom moved out of a walk, raced ahead of them all. Yes, there it lay, the fruit of all their struggles, levelled to its foundations, the stones 定语从句they had broken and carried so laboriously scattered all around. Unable at first to speak, they stood gazing mournfully at the litter of fallen stone. Napoleon paced to and fro in silence, 分词状语 occasionally snuffing at the ground. His tail had grown rigid and twitched sharply from side to side, a sign in him of intense mental activity. Suddenly he halted 方式从句as though his mind were made up.

“Comrades,” he said quietly, “do you know 宾语从句who is responsible for this? Do you know the enemy 定语从句who has come in the night and overthrown our windmill? SNOWBALL!” he suddenly roared in a voice of thunder. “Snowball has done this thing! In sheer malignity, 分词状语thinking to set back our plans and avenge himself for his ignominious expulsion, this traitor has crept here under cover of night and destroyed our work of nearly a year. Comrades, here and now I pronounce the death sentence upon Snowball. ‘Animal Hero, Second Class,’ and half a bushel of apples to any animal 定语从句who brings him to justice. A full bushel to anyone who captures him alive!”

The animals were shocked beyond measure to learn 宾语从句that even Snowball could be guilty of such an action. There was a cry of indignation, and everyone began thinking out ways of catching Snowball 条件从句if he should ever come back. Almost immediately the footprints of a pig were discovered in the grass at a little distance from the knoll. They could only be traced for a few yards, but appeared to lead to a hole in the hedge. Napoleon snuffed deeply at them and pronounced them to be Snowball’s. He gave it as his opinion同位语从句that Snowball had probably come from the direction of Foxwood Farm.

“No more delays, comrades!” cried Napoleon 时间从句when the footprints had been examined. “There is work to be done. This very morning we begin rebuilding the windmill, and we will build all through the winter, rain or shine. We will teach this miserable traitor 宾语从句that he cannot undo our work so easily. Remember, comrades, there must be no alteration in our plans: they shall be carried out to the day. Forward, comrades! Long live the windmill! Long live Animal Farm!”









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