HOW they toiled and sweated to get the hay in! But their efforts were rewarded, for the harvest was an even 比较句bigger success than they had hoped.
Sometimes the work was hard; the implements had been designed for human beings and not for animals, and it was a great drawback 同位语从句that no animal was able to use any tool that involved standing on his hind legs. But the pigs were so clever 结果状语从句that they could think of a way round every difficulty. As for the horses, they knew every inch of the field, and in fact understood the business of mowing and raking 比较句far better than Jones and his men had ever done. The pigs did not actually work, but directed and supervised the others. With their superior knowledge it was natural 主语从句that they should assume the leadership. Boxer and Clover would harness themselves to the cutter or the horse-rake (no bits or reins were needed in these days, of course) and tramp steadily round and round the field with a pig walking behind and calling out “Gee up, comrade!” or “Whoa back, comrade!” as the case might be. And every animal down to the humblest worked at turning the hay and gathering it. Even the ducks and hens toiled to and fro all day in the sun, 分词状语carrying tiny wisps of hay in their beaks. In the end they finished the harvest in two days’ 比较句less time than it had usually taken Jones and his men. Moreover, it was the biggest harvest 定语从句that the farm had ever seen. There was no wastage whatever; the hens and ducks with their sharp eyes had gathered up the very last stalk. And not an animal on the farm had stolen so much as a mouthful.
All through that summer the work of the farm went like clockwork. The animals were happy 比较句as they had never conceived it possible to be. Every mouthful of food was an acute positive pleasure, 原因状语从句now that it was truly their own food, produced by themselves and for themselves, not doled out to them by a grudging master. With the worthless parasitical human beings gone, there was more for everyone to eat. There was more leisure too, 让步状语从句inexperienced though the animals were. They met with many difficulties–for instance, later in the year, 时间状语从句when they harvested the corn, they had to tread it out in the ancient style and blow away the chaff with their breath, 原因状语从句since the farm possessed no threshing machine–but the pigs with their cleverness and Boxer with his tremendous muscles always pulled them through. Boxer was the admiration of everybody. He had been a hard worker even in Jones’s time, but now he seemed more like three horses than one; there were days 定语从句when the entire work of the farm seemed to rest on his mighty shoulders. From morning to night he was pushing and pulling, always at the spot 定语从句where the work was hardest. He had made an arrangement with one of the cockerels to call him in the mornings half an hour earlier than anyone else, and would put in some volunteer labour at 宾语从句whatever seemed to be most needed, 时间状语从句before the regular day’s work began. His answer to every problem, every setback, was “I will work harder!”–定语从句which he had adopted as his personal motto.



But everyone worked according to his capacity. The hens and ducks, for instance, saved five bushels of corn at the harvest by gathering up the stray grains. Nobody stole, nobody grumbled over his rations, the quarrelling and biting and jealousy 定语从句which had been normal features of life in the old days had almost disappeared. Nobody shirked–or almost nobody. Mollie, it was true, was not good at getting up in the mornings, and had a way of leaving work early on the ground 同位语从句that there was a stone in her hoof. And the behaviour of the cat was somewhat peculiar. It was soon noticed 主语从句that 时间状语从句when there was work to be done the cat could never be found. She would vanish for hours on end, and then reappear at meal-times, or in the evening 时间状语从句after work was over, 方式状语从句as though nothing had happened. But she always made such excellent excuses, and purred so affectionately, 结果状语从句that it was impossible not to believe in her good intentions. Old Benjamin, the donkey, seemed quite unchanged since the Rebellion. He did his work in the same slow obstinate way 比较从句as he had done it in Jones’s time, 分词状语never shirking and never volunteering for extra work either. About the Rebellion and its results he would express no opinion. 分词状语When asked whether he was not happier 时间状语从句now that Jones was gone, he would say only “Donkeys live a long time. None of you has ever seen a dead donkey,” and the others had to be content with this cryptic answer.
On Sundays there was no work. Breakfast was an hour later than usual, and after breakfast there was a ceremony which was observed every week without fail. First came the hoisting of the flag. Snowball had found in the harness-room an old green tablecloth of Mrs. Jones’s and had painted on it a hoof and a horn in white. This was run up the flagstaff in the farmhouse garden every Sun- day morning. The flag was green, Snowball explained, to represent the green fields of England, 时间状语从句while the hoof and horn signified the future Republic of the Animals 定语从句which would arise when the human race had been finally overthrown. After the hoisting of the flag all the animals trooped into the big barn for a general assembly 定语从句which was known as the Meeting. Here the work of the coming week was planned out and resolutions were put forward and debated. It was always the pigs who put forward the resolutions. The other animals understood how to vote, but could never think of any resolutions of their own. Snowball and Napoleon were by far the most active in the debates. But it was noticed 主语从句that these two were never in agreement: 让步状语从句whatever suggestion either of them made, the other could be counted on to oppose it. Even 时间状语从句when it was resolved–a thing no one could object to in itself–to set aside the small paddock behind the orchard as a home of rest for animals 定语从句who were past work, there was a stormy debate over the correct retiring age for each class of animal. The Meeting always ended with the singing of ‘Beasts of England’, and the afternoon was given up to recreation.


The pigs had set aside the harness-room as a headquarters for themselves. Here, in the evenings, they studied blacksmithing, carpentering, and other necessary arts from books 定语从句which they had brought out of the farmhouse. Snowball also busied himself with organising the other animals into 宾语从句what he called Animal Committees. He was indefatigable at this. He formed the Egg Production Committee for the hens, the Clean Tails League for the cows, the Wild Comrades’ Re-education Committee (the object of this was to tame the rats and rabbits), the Whiter Wool Movement for the sheep, and various others, besides instituting classes in reading and writing. On the whole, these projects were a failure. The attempt to tame the wild creatures, for instance, broke down almost immediately. They continued to behave very much as before, and when treated with generosity, simply took advantage of it. The cat joined the Re-education Committee and was very active in it for some days. She was seen one day sitting on a roof and talking to some sparrows 定语从句who were just out of her reach. She was telling them 宾语从句that all animals were now comrades and that any sparrow 定语从句who chose could come and perch on her paw; but the sparrows kept their distance.
The reading and writing classes, however, were a great success. By the autumn almost every animal on the farm was literate in some degree.
As for the pigs, they could already read and write perfectly. The dogs learned to read fairly well, but were not interested in reading anything except the Seven Commandments. Muriel, the goat, could read somewhat better than the dogs, and sometimes used to read to the others in the evenings from scraps of newspaper 定语从句which she found on the rubbish heap. Benjamin could read as well as any pig, but never exercised his faculty. 程度状语从句So far as he knew, he said, there was nothing worth reading. Clover learnt the whole alphabet, but could not put words together. Boxer could not get beyond the letter D. He would trace out A, B, C, D, in the dust with his great hoof, and then would stand staring at the letters with his ears back, sometimes shaking his forelock, 分词状语trying with all his might to remember what came next and never succeeding. On several occasions, indeed, he did learn E, F, G, H, but 时间状语从句by the time he knew them, it was always discovered that he had forgotten A, B, C, and D. Finally he decided to be content with the first four letters, and used to write them out once or twice every day to refresh his memory. Mollie refused to learn any but the six letters 定语从句which spelt her own name. She would form these very neatly out of pieces of twig, and would then decorate them with a flower or two and walk round them admiring them.
None of the other animals on the farm could get further than the letter A. It was also found 主语从句that the stupider animals, such as the sheep, hens, and ducks, were unable to learn the Seven Commandments by heart. After much thought Snowball declared 宾语从句that the Seven Commandments could in effect be reduced to a single maxim, namely: “Four legs good, two legs bad.” This, he said, contained the essential principle of Animalism. 主语从句Whoever had thoroughly grasped it would be safe from human influences. The birds at first objected, 原因状语从句since it seemed to them that they also had two legs, but Snowball proved to them 宾语从句that this was not so.
“A bird’s wing, comrades,” he said, “is an organ of propulsion and not of manipulation. It should therefore be regarded as a leg. The distinguishing mark of man is the hand, the instrument 定语从句with which he does all his mischief.”






The birds did not understand Snowball’s long words, but they accepted his explanation, and all the humbler animals set to work to learn the new maxim by heart. FOUR LEGS GOOD, TWO LEGS BAD, was inscribed on the end wall of the barn, above the Seven Commandments and in bigger letters. 时间状语从句When they had once got it by heart, the sheep developed a great liking for this maxim, and often 时间状语从句as they lay in the field they would all start bleating “Four legs good, two legs bad! Four legs good, two legs bad!” and keep it up for hours on end, 分词状语never growing tired of it.
Napoleon took no interest in Snowball’s committees. He said 宾语从句that the education of the young was more important than anything 定语从句that could be done for those who were already grown up. It happened that Jessie and Blue- bell had both whelped soon 时间状语从句after the hay harvest, 分词状语giving birth between them to nine sturdy puppies. 时间状语从句As soon as they were weaned, Napoleon took them away from their mothers, 分词状语saying that he would make himself responsible for their education. He took them up into a loft 定语从句which could only be reached by a ladder from the harness-room, and there kept them in such seclusion 结果状语从句that the rest of the farm soon forgot their existence.
The mystery of 宾语从句where the milk went to was soon cleared up. It was mixed every day into the pigs’ mash.
The early apples were now ripening, and the grass of the orchard was littered with windfalls. The animals had assumed as a matter of course that these would be shared out equally; one day, however, the order went forth 同位语从句that all the windfalls were to be collected and brought to the harness-room for the use of the pigs. At this some of the other animals murmured, but it was no use. All the pigs were in full agreement on this point, even Snowball and Napoleon. Squealer was sent to make the necessary explanations to the others.
“Comrades!” he cried. “You do not imagine, I hope, that we pigs are doing this in a spirit of selfishness and privilege? Many of us actually dislike milk and apples. I dislike them myself. Our sole object in taking these things is to preserve our health. Milk and apples (this has been proved by Science, comrades) contain substances absolutely necessary to the well-being of a pig. We pigs are brainworkers. The whole management and organisation of this farm depend on us. Day and night we are watching over your welfare. It is for your sake 主语从句that we drink that milk and eat those apples. Do you know what would happen 条件状语从句if we pigs failed in our duty? Jones would come back! Yes, Jones would come back! Surely, comrades,” cried Squealer almost pleadingly, 分词状语skipping from side to side and whisking his tail, “surely there is no one among you 定语从句who wants to see Jones come back?”
Now 条件状语从句if there was one thing 定语从句that the animals were completely certain of, it was that they did not want Jones back. 时间状语从句When it was put to them in this light, they had no more to say. The importance of keeping the pigs in good health was all too obvious. So it was agreed without further argument 主语从句that the milk and the windfall apples (and also the main crop of apples 时间状语从句when they ripened) should be reserved for the pigs alone.






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