Winston was dreaming of his mother.
He must, he thought, have been ten or eleven years old 时间从句when his mother had disappeared. She was a tall, statuesque, rather silent woman with slow movements and magnificent fair hair. His father he remembered 宾补more vaguely as dark and thin, dressed always in neat dark clothes (Winston remembered especially the very thin soles of his father’s shoes) and wearing spectacles. The two of them must evidently have been swallowed up in one of the first great purges of the fifties.
At this moment his mother was sitting in some place deep down beneath him, with his young sister in her arms. He did not remember his sister at all, except as a tiny, feeble baby, always silent, with large, watchful eyes. Both of them were looking up at him. They were down in some subterranean place — the bottom of a well, for instance, or a very deep grave — but it was a place 定语从句which, already far below him, was itself moving downwards. They were in the saloon of a sinking ship, 分词状语looking up at him through the darkening water. There was still air in the saloon, they could still see him and he them, but all the while they were sinking down, down into the green waters 定语从句which in another moment must hide them from sight for ever. He was out in the light and air 时间从句while they were being sucked down to death, and they were down there 原因从句because he was up here. He knew it and they knew it, and he could see the knowledge in their faces. There was no reproach either in their faces or in their hearts, only the knowledge 同位语从句that they must die in order that he might remain alive, and that this was part of the unavoidable order of things.
He could not remember 宾语从句what had happened, but he knew in his dream 宾语从句that in some way the lives of his mother and his sister had been sacrificed to his own. It was one of those dreams 定语从句which, 分词状语while retaining the characteristic dream scenery, are a continuation of one’s intellectual life, and in which one becomes aware of facts and ideas 定语从句which still seem new and valuable after one is awake. The thing 定语从句that now suddenly struck Winston was 谓语从句that his mother’s death, nearly thirty years ago, had been tragic and sorrowful in a way that was no longer possible. Tragedy, he perceived, belonged to the ancient time, to a time 定语从句when there was still privacy, love, and friendship, and when the members of a family stood by one another without needing to know the reason. His mother’s memory tore at his heart because she had died loving him, 时间从句when he was too young and selfish to love her in return, and 原因从句because somehow, he did not remember how, she had sacrificed herself to a conception of loyalty 定语从句that was private and unalterable. Such things, he saw, could not happen today. Today there were fear, hatred, and pain, but no dignity of emotion, no deep or complex sorrows. All this he seemed to see in the large eyes of his mother and his sister, 宾补looking up at him through the green water, hundreds of fathoms down and still sinking.
Suddenly he was standing on short springy turf, on a summer evening 时间从句when the slanting rays of the sun gilded the ground. The landscape 定语从句that he was looking at recurred 结果成绩so often in his dreams that he was never fully certain 补语从句whether or not he had seen it in the real world. In his waking thoughts he called it the Golden Country. It was an old, rabbit-bitten pasture, with a foot-track wandering across it and a molehill here and there. In the ragged hedge on the opposite side of the field the boughs of the elm trees were swaying very faintly in the breeze, 分词状语their leaves just stirring in dense masses like women’s hair. Somewhere near at hand, though out of sight, there was a clear, slow-moving stream 定语从句where dace were swimming in the pools under the willow trees.
The girl with dark hair was coming towards them across the field. With 名词（宾语）从句what seemed a single movement she tore off her clothes and flung them disdainfully aside. Her body was white and smooth, but it aroused no desire in him, indeed he barely looked at it. What overwhelmed him in that instant was admiration for the gesture with which she had thrown her clothes aside. With its grace and carelessness it seemed to annihilate a whole culture, a whole system of thought, 方式从句as though Big Brother and the Party and the Thought Police could all be swept into nothingness by a single splendid movement of the arm. That too was a gesture 分词定语belonging to the ancient time. Winston woke up with the word ‘Shakespeare’ on his lips.
The telescreen was giving forth an ear-splitting whistle 定语从句which continued on the same note for thirty seconds. It was nought seven fifteen, getting-up time for office workers. Winston wrenched his body out of bed — naked, for a member of the Outer Party received only 3,000 clothing coupons annually, and a suit of pyjamas was 600 — and seized a dingy singlet and a pair of shorts 定语从句that were lying across a chair. The Physical Jerks would begin in three minutes. The next moment he was doubled up by a violent coughing fit 定语从句which nearly always attacked him soon after waking up. It emptied his lungs so completely 结果从句that he could only begin breathing again by lying on his back and taking a series of deep gasps. His veins had swelled with the effort of the cough, and the varicose ulcer had started itching.
‘Thirty to forty group!’ yapped a piercing female voice. ‘Thirty to forty group! Take your places, please. Thirties to forties!’
Winston sprang to attention in front of the telescreen, 定语从句upon which the image of a youngish woman, scrawny but muscular, dressed in tunic and gym-shoes, had already appeared.
‘Arms bending and stretching!’ she rapped out. ‘Take your time by me. One, two, three, four! One, two, three, four! Come on, comrades, put a bit of life into it! One, two, three, four! One, two, three, four! …’
The pain of the coughing fit had not quite driven out of Winston’s mind the impression 分词定语made by his dream, and the rhythmic movements of the exercise restored it somewhat. As he mechanically shot his arms back and forth, 分词状语wearing on his face the look of grim enjoyment 定语从句which was considered proper during the Physical Jerks, he was struggling to think his way backward into the dim period of his early childhood. It was extraordinarily difficult. Beyond the late fifties everything faded. 时间状语When there were no external records 定语从句that you could refer to, even the outline of your own life lost its sharpness. You remembered huge events 定语从句which had quite probably not happened, you remembered the detail of incidents without being able to recapture their atmosphere, and there were long blank periods 定语从句to which you could assign nothing. Everything had been different then. Even the names of countries, and their shapes on the map, had been different. Airstrip One, for instance, had not been so called in those days: it had been called England or Britain, though London, he felt fairly certain, had always been called London.
Winston could not definitely remember a time 定语从句when his country had not been at war, but it was evident 主语从句that there had been a fairly long interval of peace during his childhood, 原因从句because one of his early memories was of an air raid 定语从句which appeared to take everyone by surprise. Perhaps it was the time 定语从句when the atomic bomb had fallen on Colchester. He did not remember the raid itself, but he did remember his father’s hand clutching his own 时间从句as they hurried down, down, down into some place deep in the earth, round and round a spiral staircase 定语从句which rang under his feet and which finally so wearied his legs that he began whimpering and they had to stop and rest. His mother, in her slow, dreamy way, was following a long way behind them. She was carrying his baby sister — or perhaps it was only a bundle of blankets 定语从句that she was carrying: he was not certain 补语从句whether his sister had been born then. Finally they had emerged into a noisy, crowded place 定语从句which he had realized to be a Tube station.
There were people sitting all over the stone-flagged floor, and other people, 分词状语packed tightly together, were sitting on metal bunks, one above the other. Winston and his mother and father found themselves a place on the floor, and near them an old man and an old woman were sitting side by side on a bunk. The old man had on a decent dark suit and a black cloth cap pushed back from very white hair: his face was scarlet and his eyes were blue and full of tears. He reeked of gin. It seemed to breathe out of his skin in place of sweat, and one could have fancied that the tears 分词定语welling from his eyes were pure gin. But though slightly drunk he was also suffering under some grief 定语从句that was genuine and unbearable. In his childish way Winston grasped 宾语从句that some terrible thing, something 定语从句that was beyond forgiveness and could never be remedied, had just happened. It also seemed to him 表语从句that he knew 宾语从句what it was. Someone 定语从句whom the old man loved — a little granddaughter, perhaps had been killed. Every few minutes the old man kept repeating:
‘We didn’t ought to ‘ave trusted ’em. I said so, Ma, didn’t I? That’s 表语从句what comes of trusting ’em. I said so all along. We didn’t ought to ‘ave trusted the buggers.
But 宾语从句which buggers they didn’t ought to have trusted Winston could not now remember.
Since about that time, war had been literally continuous, 让步从句though strictly speaking it had not always been the same war. For several months during his childhood there had been confused street fighting in London itself, 定语从句some of which he remembered vividly. But 不定式主语to trace out the history of the whole period, to say who was fighting whom at any given moment, would have been utterly impossible, since no written record, and no spoken word, ever made mention of any other alignment than the existing one. At this moment, for example, in 1984 (if it was 1984), Oceania was at war with Eurasia and in alliance with Eastasia. In no public or private utterance was it ever admitted 主语从句that the three powers had at any time been grouped along different lines. Actually, 比较从句as Winston well knew, it was only four years 时间从句since Oceania had been at war with Eastasia and in alliance with Eurasia. But that was merely a piece of furtive knowledge 定语从句which he happened to possess 原因从句because his memory was not satisfactorily under control. Officially the change of partners had never happened. Oceania was at war with Eurasia: therefore Oceania had always been at war with Eurasia. The enemy of the moment always represented absolute evil, and it followed 主语从句that any past or future agreement with him was impossible.
The frightening thing, he reflected for the ten thousandth time 时间从句as he forced his shoulders painfully backward (with hands on hips, they were gyrating their bodies from the waist, an exercise 定语从句that was supposed to be good for the back muscles) — the frightening thing was 表语从句that it might all be true. 条件从句If the Party could thrust its hand into the past and say of this or that event, it never happened — that, surely, was more terrifying than mere torture and death?
The Party said 宾语从句that Oceania had never been in alliance with Eurasia. He, Winston Smith, knew 宾语从句that Oceania had been in alliance with Eurasia as short a time as four years ago. But where did that knowledge exist? Only in his own consciousness, 定语从句which in any case must soon be annihilated. And 条件从句if all others accepted the lie which the Party imposed -if all records told the same tale — then the lie passed into history and became truth. ‘主语从句Who controls the past,’ ran the Party slogan, ‘controls the future: 主语从句who controls the present controls the past.’ And yet the past, though of its nature alterable, never had been altered. 主语从句Whatever was true now was true from everlasting to everlasting. It was quite simple. All 定语从句that was needed was an unending series of victories over your own memory. ‘Reality control’, they called it: in Newspeak, ‘doublethink’.
‘Stand easy!’ barked the instructress, a little more genially.
Winston sank his arms to his sides and slowly refilled his lungs with air. His mind slid away into the labyrinthine world of doublethink. To know and not to know, to be conscious of complete truthfulness while telling carefully constructed lies, to hold simultaneously two opinions 定语从句which cancelled out, knowing them to be contradictory and believing in both of them, to use logic against logic, to repudiate morality while laying claim to it, to believe that democracy was impossible and that the Party was the guardian of democracy, to forget whatever it was necessary to forget, then to draw it back into memory again at the moment when it was needed, and then promptly to forget it again: and above all, to apply the same process to the process itself. That was the ultimate subtlety: consciously to induce unconsciousness, and then, once again, to become unconscious of the act of hypnosis 定语从句you had just performed. 不定式主语Even to understand the word ‘doublethink’ involved the use of doublethink.
The instructress had called them to attention again. ‘And now let’s see 宾语从句which of us can touch our toes!’ she said enthusiastically. ‘Right over from the hips, please, comrades. One-two! One- two! …’
Winston loathed this exercise, 定语从句which sent shooting pains all the way from his heels to his buttocks and often ended by bringing on another coughing fit. The half-pleasant quality went out of his meditations. The past, 定语从句he reflected, had not merely been altered, it had been actually destroyed. For how could you establish even the most obvious fact 时间从句when there existed no record outside your own memory? He tried to remember 宾语从句in what year he had first heard mention of Big Brother. He thought it must have been at some time in the sixties, but it was impossible to be certain. In the Party histories, of course, Big Brother figured as the leader and guardian of the Revolution since its very earliest days. His exploits had been gradually pushed backwards in time 时间从句until already they extended into the fabulous world of the forties and the thirties, 定语从句when the capitalists in their strange cylindrical hats still rode through the streets of London in great gleaming motor-cars or horse carriages with glass sides. There was no knowing 宾语从句how much of this legend was true and how much invented. Winston could not even remember 宾语从句at what date the Party itself had come into existence. He did not believe he had ever heard the word Ingsoc before 1960, but it was possible that in its Oldspeak form — ‘English Socialism’, that is to say — it had been current earlier. Everything melted into mist. Sometimes, indeed, you could put your finger on a definite lie. It was not true, for example, as was claimed in the Party history books, that the Party had invented aeroplanes. He remembered aeroplanes since his earliest childhood. But you could prove nothing. There was never any evidence. Just once in his whole life he had held in his hands unmistakable documentary proof of the falsification of an historical fact. And on that occasion —
‘Smith!’ screamed the shrewish voice from the telescreen. ‘6079 Smith W.! Yes, you! Bend lower, please! You can do better than that. You’re not trying. Lower, please! That’s better, comrade. Now stand at ease, the whole squad, and watch me.’
A sudden hot sweat had broken out all over Winston’s body. His face remained completely inscrutable. Never show dismay! Never show resentment! A single flicker of the eyes could give you away. He stood watching 时间从句while the instructress raised her arms above her head and — one could not say gracefully, but with remarkable neatness and efficiency — bent over and tucked the first joint of her fingers under her toes.
‘There, comrades! That’s 表语从句how I want to see you doing it. Watch me again. I’m thirty-nine and I’ve had four children. Now look.’ She bent over again. ‘You see my knees aren’t bent. You can all do it 条件从句if you want to,’ she added 时间从句as she straightened herself up. ‘Anyone under forty-five is perfectly capable of touching his toes. We don’t all have the privilege of fighting in the front line, but at least we can all keep fit. Remember our boys on the Malabar front! And the sailors in the Floating Fortresses! Just think 宾语从句what they have to put up with. Now try again. That’s better, comrade, that’s much better,’ she added encouragingly 时间从句as Winston, with a violent lunge, succeeded in touching his toes with knees unbent, for the first time in several years.