被动语态的构成形式

4.1 被动语态的构成形式    

4.1.1 被动语态的基本时态变化     

被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式, 被动语态由“be+过去分词”构成,be随时态的变化而变化。以do为例,各种时态的被动语态形式为:     

1)      am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时    

Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits.   

请访客不要触摸展品。 

2)      has /have been done 现在完成时     

All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we’re ready to start.     

任务所有准备工作都已完成,我们可以开始了。 

3)      am/is /are being done 现在进行时    

A new cinema is being built here.    

4)      was/were done 一般过去时     

I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.    

我有十分钟时间来决定是否应该拒绝这个议案。 

5)      had been done 过去完成时     

By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing.     

截至去年年底,北京又新建了一座体育馆。 

6)      was/were being done 过去进行时    

A meeting was being held when I was there.    

我在那里时正在举行会议。 

7)      shall/will be done 一般将来时  

Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes.    

如果工厂关闭,将会损失数百个工作岗位。 

8)      should/would be done 过去将来时     

The news would be sent to the soldier’s mother as soon as it arrived.    

这个消息一来就会传达给士兵母亲。 

9)      shall/will have been done 将来完成时(少用)    

The project will have been completed before July.    

该项目将在7月之前完成。 

10)   should/would have been done 过去将来完成时(少用)    

He told me that his new clothes would have been made very soon.    

他告诉我他的新衣服很快就会制作完成。 

4.1.2 被动语态的特殊结构形式     

1)带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词。    

The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter.    

保姆应该好好照顾宝宝。 

2)有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。通常变为主语的是间接宾语。     

His mother gave him a present for his birthday.  

他母亲给他送了生日礼物。 

可改为 He was given a present by his mother for his birthday.     

3)当“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”结构变为被动语态时,将宾语变为被动结构中的主语,其余不动。     

Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette.  

有人抓住那个正在抽烟男孩。 

可改为The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.     

4)在使役动词have, make, get以及感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe等后面不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式to要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加to。 

Someone saw a stranger walk into the building.  

有人看到一个陌生人走进大楼。 

可改为A stranger was seen to walk into the building.     

5)      有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如“动词+介词”,“动词+副词”等,也可以用于被动结构,但要把它们看作一个整体,不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。    

The meeting is to be put off till Friday.    

会议将推迟到周五举行。 

4.1.3 非谓语动词的被动语态     

v.+ing 形式及不定式 to do 也有被动语态(一般时态和完成时态) 。     

I don’t like being laughed at in the public.    

我不喜欢在公众场合被人嘲笑。

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