15.4 宾语从句 

 

15.4.1 由that 引导的宾语从句 

 

许多动词可以跟由that引导的宾语从句,that 有时可以省略。 

He says (that) he is a Young Pioneer.他说他是个少先队员。 

We know that it is an interesting story.我们知道它是一个有趣的故事。 

I hope (that) he will be fine soon.我希望他很快好起来。 

 

15.4.2 由连接代词引导的宾语从句 

 

连接代词也可以引导宾语从句。连接代词在宾语从句中可作主语、宾语、表语、定语等。  

 

1)作主语 

Do you know who will come this afternoon? 你知道今天下午谁来吗? 

I do not know what causes the trouble. 我不知道是什么引起了麻烦。 

The editor decides which will be the most important story on the front page.  

编辑决定哪篇报道最重要,安排在头版。 

  

2)作宾语 

Did you hear what she said? 你听见她说的话了吗? 

As a friend of yours, I want to tell you what I hear.  

作为你的朋友,我想告诉你我听到的情况。 

I asked him whom they had chosen. 我问他,他们选了谁 

  

3)作表语 

Please tell me who that girl is. 请告诉我那个姑娘是谁。 

I don't know whose that is.我不知道那是谁的 

She had demanded to know whose the child was. 她要求知道这孩子是谁的。 

  

4)作定语 

Could you tell me which gate we have to go to? 请问我们得走哪个门? 

Have you decided what music you'd like us to play at the party?  

你已决定你想让我们在聚会上演什么音乐了吗? 

You may take whichever book will interest you. 哪本书让你觉得有趣,你可以拿哪本。 

 

15.4.3 由连接副词引导的宾语从句  

   

We didn't know when she would come back.我们不知道她什么时候回来。   

None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.    

没有人知道这些的新的零件能在哪里买到。   

Could you please tell me how you use the new panel? 你能告诉我怎么用这个新的操作盘吗 

 

15.4.4 由 whether 和 if 引导的宾语从句 

 

Nobody knows whether (if) it will rain tomorrow. 没有人知道明天是否下雨。 

The old woman asked me if (whether) I knew the way to the hospital.  

老妇人问我是否知道去医院的路。 

Tom asked if (whether) I had read the book. 汤姆问我是否看过这本书 。 

I want to know whether it's good news or not. 我想知道是否是好消息。 

 

15.4.5 由what 引导的从句 

 

I think Father would like to know what I've been up to so far, so I decided to send him a quick note. 我想父亲想知道目前我在做什么,所以我决定给他发个短信。 

Our hometown has changed a lot, and now it is quite different from what it used to be a few years ago.  

我们的家乡变化很大,它现在与数年前的样子完全不同。 

A modern city has been set up in what was a wasteland ten years ago.  

一座现代化城市已经在十年前是垃圾场的地方拨地而起。 

 

15.4.6 由 whatever, whichever, whoever, whomever 引导的宾语从句 

 

I don't believe whatever he said. 无论他说什么我都不信。 

He does Whatever she asks him to do. 她要他做什么,他就做什么。 

I'll give the ticket to whoever wants it. 请想要这票,我就把它给谁。 

I'll take whoever wants to go. 谁想去我就带谁去。 

Take whichever you like. 哪个你喜欢你就拿哪个。 

I'll take whichever books you don't want. 你不要的任何书我都要。 

Give it to whomever you like. 你愿意把它给谁就给谁。 

 

15.4.7 由连接代词或连接副词加不定式组成的宾语从句 

 

We can't decide whom to vote. 我们不能决定该邀请谁。 

He gave a lesson on how to improve soil. 他讲了一堂关于怎样改善土壤的课。 

We must decide what to do with her. 我们必须决定怎么处置她。 

 

15.4.8 宾语从句在句子中的位置 

 

宾语从句通常直接位于动词之后,但也有以下其他情况。 

  

1) 位于间接宾语之后的宾语从句 

有的宾语从句不直接位于动词之后,而是位于间接宾语之后,作直接宾语。 

I reminded her how much the ticket was. 我提醒她票的价钱。 

He informed the police that some money was missing. 他向警方报案说有些钱不见了。 

Can you tell me what the time is? 你能告诉我现 在几点钟吗? 

  

2) 宾语从句作介词的宾语 

It is a question of whether we can find the necessary money.  

这是个我们能否找到所需款项的问题。  

I could say nothing but that I was sorry. 我只能说我很抱歉。  

I know nothing about my new neighbor except that he used to work with a company.  

对于我的新邻居我只知道他曾在一家公司上班,其他一无所知. 

  

3) be + adj. + 宾语从句 

I'm afraid (that) he can't come.恐怕他不能来了。 

I am sorry I haven't written to you for so long. 真抱歉,我很长时间没给你写信了。 

I am not sure when he will come. 我不确定他什么时候将会来。 

He's doubtful whether he can afford it. 他怀疑他能否出得起这笔钱。 

  

4) v. + to + n. + 宾语从句 

You should indicate to the team where they are to assemble. 你应该示意团队在哪里集合。 

She said to her mother that she would not marry anyone except him.  

她对她母亲说除了他之外她谁也不嫁。 

 

15.4.8 宾语从句的否定转移 

 

当主句的谓语动词是 think, believe, expect, guess 等表示 “认为,相信,期望, 猜想”等意思,主句的主语是第一人称,且主句时态为一般现在时的时候,宾语从句的否定一般要转移到主句上来。其反意疑问句一般与宾语从句一致。 

  

I don't think she will come to the party tonight. 我想她今晚不会来参加晚会。(一般不说: I think she will not come to the party tonight.) 

I don't believe the boy is killed by Jim, is he? 我认为那个男孩不是吉姆所杀的,是不是? 

 

15.4.9 宾语从句的时态呼应 

 

如果主句为过去时态,那么宾语从句通常要采用相应的过去时态。 

  

I didn't know when he leaved the office. 我不知道他什么时候离开办公室。 

I was so glad that they were doing well. 我很高兴他们做得很好。 

He didn't think that Peter had told the true. 我不认为彼得讲了实话。 

She hoped she would go back home immediately. 她希望立即回家。 

He asked her if she was going to set off early next morning. 他问她是否第二天一早就出发。 

  

注意:  在一些特殊情况下, 从句时态不随着主句的时态变化。 

  

1) 表示永恒真理时。 

Scientists proved that light travels faster than sound. 科学家证明了光速比声速快。 

When we were children, we were told that China is the east of the world.  

我们是小孩子的时候, 人们就告诉我们说中国在世界的东方。 

  

2)在口语中为了避免误会时也可以不变。 

She said she's leaving tonight. 他说她今晚走。 

Tom said he'll do it. 汤姆说这事他来做。 

He told me just now that his wife is ill. 他刚才告诉我他妻子病了。 

  

3) 使用虚拟语气时。 

She demanded that I pay her immediately. 他要求我立即付款给她。 

He insisted that Jennie send her to dancing school. 他坚持要珍妮送她进舞稻学校。 

They proposed that Mr. Smith be the chairman. 他们提议史密斯生生担任主席。 

 

15.4.10 用it作形式宾语的宾语从句 

 

有时宾语从句会移到句子后部,而用it作其先行形式宾语。这种情况在复合宾语中尤为常用。 

  

The headmaster has made it clear that the school meeting will not be put off  

校长说得很清楚校会不会推迟。 

I take it for granted that you will win the first prize. 我认为你获一等奖是理所当然的事。 

He hasn't made it clear when he is coming back. 他没有说明他什么时候回来。 

I take it that you have been out. 我以为你一直出门在外。 

You can put it that it was arranged before. 你可以说这是以前安排的。 

I hate it when people talk with their mouths full. 我讨厌人们一边吃饭一边说话。 

I like it when the weather is clear and bright. 我喜欢晴朗的天气。