15.3 复合宾语(宾语补足语) 

 

复合宾语是指宾语由两部分组成。 后面部分也可称为宾语的补语。 

 

15.3.宾语补足语的一般情况 
 

宾语补足语通常紧随于宾语之后。 

 

1) 名词(代词) + 形容词 (即形容词作宾语补语) 
Do you think his idea wrong? 你认为他的意见错了吗? 
We must keep our classroom clean. 我们必须保持教室清洁。 

 

2) 名词(代词) + 名词 (即名词作宾语补语) 
We call him Jack. 我们叫他杰克。 
He considers himself an expert on the subject. 他认为自己是这门学科的专家。 

 

3) 名词(代词) +现在分词(即现在分词作宾语补语) 
I saw them playing football. 我看见他们正在踢足球。 
When he awoke, he found himself being looked after by a pretty young nurse.  

当他醒来后, 他发现一个年轻漂亮的护士在照料他。 

 

4) 名词(代词) +过去分词(即过去分词作宾语补语) 
I had my bike stolen. 我的自行车被偷了。 
I saw the ground covered with snow. 我看到地上覆盖着雪。 

 

5) 名词(代词) + 介词短语(即介词短语作宾语补语) 
We found everything in good order. 我们发现一切井然有序。 
He awoke to find the house on fire. 他醒来时发现房子着了火。 
When I called on Tom, I found him at his desk. 我拜访汤姆时,发现他在伏案工作。 
We have him as our good friend. 我们把他视为好朋友。 

 

6) 名词(代词) + 副词 (即副词短语作宾语补语) 
Send them back. 把它们退回去。 
I can't get the nail out. 我没法把这个钉子拔出。 
Please turn the light off before you leave. 离开前请关灯。 

 

7) 名词(代词) +不定式(即不定式作宾语补语) 
 

a. to 的不定式作宾语补语 
We invited him to come to our school. 我们邀请他来我们学校。 
We can't allow them to do that. 我们不能容许他们那样做。 
I warn you not to believe a word he says. 我提醒你, 对他讲的话一句也不要信。 

 

b. 有些动词只跟不带to的不定式作宾语补语 
I often hear him read English in his room. 我常听见他在房间里读英语。 
Please let me do it. 请让我做。 
They made me repeat the story. 他们逼我又把那事讲了一遍. 
I saw him put the key in the lock. 我看见他把钥匙插进锁孔. 
She watched him repair the bicycle. 她看着他修理单车。 
Did you notice anyone come in? 你注意到有人进来了吗? 

 

c. 动词help 可以跟带to 的不定式作宾语补语,也可以跟不带to的不定式作宾语补足语。但被动时则要加to。 
She sometimes helps her mother (to) wash clothes. 她有时帮她妈妈洗衣服。 
I helped him (to) find his things. 我帮他找东西. 
They were helped to complete the project. 他们得到帮助完成项目。 
 

15.3.宾语补足语有时可被移到宾语之前,特别是宾语较长或宾语是从句时。 
 

1)副词补足语提前 
副词补足语提前在英语中比较常见。 

He took off his coat immediately. 他立即脱下外套。 
It is difficult to sort out the lies from the truth. 很难从事实中区分出谎言。 
Can you make out who is over there talking with our teacher?  

你能认出那边正和我们老师谈话的人是谁吗? 

 

2)形容词补足语提前 
The improvement in technology made possible the rise of production.  

技术的改进使产量增加成为可能。 
The teacher made clear the difference between the two words. 老师清楚地说明了两个词的区别。 
In recent years, China has continuously made public its military expenditure through white paper.  

近年来中国连续以白皮书的形式向世界公布了自己的军费开支情况。 
I beg you to keep secret what we talked here. 我求你对这里所谈的话保密。 

 

3) 现在分词和过去分词作补足语有时也可以被移到宾语前。 
She found sitting on the desk a guy dressed like a student.  

她见到一个学生打扮的小伙子坐在桌子上。 
He found hidden behind the rock a plant which he had never seen before.  

他发现一棵从未见过的植物隐藏在岩石后边。 

 

15.3.介词宾语的宾语补足语 (with/without复合结构) 
 

介词with/without 的宾语也常可有宾语补足语,构成复合结构, 表示方式、补充说明、伴随动作、 时间、 条件或原因等。 

 

1)with/without + n. + 现在分词 
With the boy leading the way, we quickly found the house.  

有男孩带路,我们很快找到那所房间。 
The English class ended with all students singing an English song.  

英语课以全体学生合唱一首英语歌而结束。 
I can't move about in the city without everybody knowing.  

在这座城市我的行踪无法不让大家知道。 

 

2)with/without + n. + 过去分词 
With a lot of problems settled, the newly-elected president is having a good time.  

解决了许多问题之后,新上任的总统有一个好的时光。 
With the homework finished, he was allowed to watch the football match.  

完成作业之后,他被允许看足球赛。 

 

3)with/without + n. + 形容词 
Before he came here, my father used to sleep with his eyes open.  

我父亲来这儿之前,常常睁着眼睛睡觉。 
It was cold outside, the boy ran into the room with his nose red.  

外面天气很冷,那个男孩跑进了屋子时,鼻子红红的。 

 

4)with/without + n. + 介词短语 
The teacher came into the classroom with a book in his hand.  

老师手里拿着本书走进了教室。 
He was asleep with his head on his arms. 他头放在手臂上睡着了。 

 

5)with/without + n. + 副词 
He was standing there with nothing on. 他一丝不挂地站在那里。 
We went home with our work over. 我们工作做完就回家了。 

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