12.3 简单句 

 

简单句只有一个限定动词(即只有一个主谓结构 ),它是最小的句子单位。主要起下列四种 作用中的一种。  

  • 作一种陈述 

  • 提出一个问题 

  • 发出一种命令或请求 

  • 表示一种感叹 

 

The boy hit the dog. / The dog bit the boy.  

The girl read the books. / The books pleased the girl.  

Stephen apologized at once.  

Does the shop close at 7 tonight?  

Shut the door.  

What a slow train this is! 
 

12.3.1 简单句的五种基本句型 
 

主语 + 不及物动词 ( S + Vi ) 

主语  及物动词 +宾语 ( S + Vt + O)  

主语  系动词   (S + LV + predicative)  

主语+双宾动词 间宾 直宾 +Vt +O.indir+Odir 

主语  宾补动词 +宾语 +宾语补语 ? (S + Vt. + O + O. compl 

There + be / stand/ lie / live... 
 
主语、动词(不及物动词、及物动词、双宾动词、系动词、 宾补动词)、宾语及补语可以称为基本句子成分 基本句子成分。 基本句子成分 完整的句子一般至少包含2个基本成分,至多4个基本成分。 
 
12.3.2 简单句基本句型实例 
 

主语 + 不及物动词  

She came. 

My head aches. .  

 

主语  及物动词  宾语  

She likes English.  

 

主语  系动词  主语补语  

She is happy. 

 

主语  双宾动词  间接宾语  直接宾语  

She gave John a book. 

She bought a book for me.  

 

主语  宾补动词  宾语  宾语补语  

She makes her mother angry 

The teacher asked me to read the passage.  

 

There +be  

There lies a book on the desk. 
 

12.3.3 附属成分 
 

基本成分的修饰语。可以是: 

定语:即用来修饰名词的单词、短语或从句  

状语:即用来修饰名词或代词以外的词的单词、 短语或从句。  
 

1)定语 
Poor John tottered toward a hospital nearby.  

She likes oranges imported from the USA.  

John gave Mary many bookswhich are full of  illustrations   

Have you seen the book on the desk?  

The boy playing over there is my brother.  

People there like sports. 
 

2)状 语 
John often came to chat with me.  

John likes oranges very much  

Whenever he gets drunkJohn makes Mary very angry  

Hearing the news, he jumped with joy.  

As he was ill, he didn’t come to class yesterday.  

She is sitting at the desk, doing her homework.  

My father worked in this school ten years ago.  

You’d better stay here. 
 

12.3.4 简单句的基本词序 
 

主语 

动词部分 (谓语) 

宾语 

状语 方式 地点 时间  

I 

bought 

a hat 

yesterday 

The children 

ran 

 

home. 

The taxi driver 

shouted at 

me 

angrily. 

We 

ate 

our meal 

in silence. 

The car 

stopped 

 

suddenly. 

A young girl 

walked 

 

confidently in the room. 

They 

drove away 

him  

in a police car. 

 

                 

12.3.5 简单句的扩展成份 
 

简单句的主语、宾语可以加上一个短语(如定语)来扩展, 及物动词或不及物动词也可以与其它短语(如状语)连用进行扩展。  
 

I bought a rain coat with a warm lining 

The dog jumped through the window 

He is saving up to buy a mobile phone 

bright little boy with rosy cheeks put three bottles of milk quietly on my doorstep before seven o’clock 

He worked like a madman in the garden on Saturday 

The young girl with long black hair seems to be very happy. 
 

12.3.6   、   、      
 

两个简单句的主语可以连词and、but、both..and either…or、neither…nor、not only…but also等连词连接 组成一个简单句,但应注意主语和谓语动词的一致性。   

 

The boss is flying to Paris. His secretary is flying to Paris.  

The boss and his secretary are flying to Paris.  

Both the boss and his secretary are flying to Paris.  

 

The boss is flying to Rome. His secretary is not flying to Rome.  

The boss but not his secretary is flying to Rome.  

 

The boss may be flying to Berlin. His secretary may be flying to Berlin.  

Either the boss or his secretary is flying to Berlin.  

 

The boss is not flying to York. His secretary isn’t flying to York.  

Neither the boss nor his secretary is flying to York. 
 
两个简单句的宾语可由and、both…and等连词连接组成 一个简单句。  

 

I met Jane. I met her husband.  

I met Jane and her husband.  

I met both Jane and her husband.  

 

It was cold. It was wet.  

It was cold and wet.  

 

I didn’t meet Jane. I didn’t meet her husband.  

I didn’t meet either Jane or her husband.  

I met neither Jane nor her husband.  

 

两个或两个以上限定动词也可合并为一个简单句。  

 

We sang all night. We danced all night.  

We sang and danced all night. 

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