9.1 介词分类  

 

9.1.1 简单介词   

指由一个单词构成的介词, 简单介词也可能由形容词、副词、名词、连词等转变而来, 常用的有: 

by, in, after , on, at , past , since, till , until , over, opposite, off, near , of, with, up, under, toward( s) , through , like, from, for , down , during, except , but , beyond,  between ,besides, beside, beneath, below, behind, before, among, along, against , above, across ,about , amid( st) , onto, underneath , unlike, round, next , despite, than, save 除⋯⋯之外, 等。  

 

9.1.2 以-ing 结尾的介词   

这类介词由现在分词演变而来, 常用的有: 

excepting 除⋯⋯外, including 包括, regarding 关于, barring 除⋯⋯外, concerning 关于, touching 关于, considering 就⋯⋯而言, saving 除外, respecting 关于, pending 在⋯⋯之中(到⋯⋯为止) , failing 如果没有(若无⋯⋯时) , following 在⋯⋯以后, 等。  

 

9.1.3 合成介词   

into 进入, outside 在⋯⋯外, within 在⋯⋯内, without 没有, throughout 遍及(贯穿) ,inside 在⋯⋯内, upon 在⋯⋯上, alongside 在⋯⋯旁边(沿着) , notwithstanding 虽然,等。  

 

9.1.4 短语介词   

这类介词是短语性的固定介词搭配, 可以是介词+ 名词, 介词+ 介词, 介词+ 分词, 介词+ 动词, 介词+ 形容词, 介词+ 副词等构成, 常用的有: 

out of 从⋯⋯里面(从⋯⋯中) , but for 要不是, ahead of 在⋯⋯前, according to 根据,apar t from 除⋯⋯外, along with 同⋯⋯一起, because of 由于(因为) , together with 同⋯⋯一起, as regards 关于, as to 关于(至于) , due to 由于, in front of 在⋯⋯前面, in place of 代替, on behalf of 代表, near to 靠近, instead of 替代(而不) , next to 紧靠旁边(贴近) , on account of 由于(鉴于) , owing to 由于(因为) , with regard to 关于, in regard to 关于, prior to 在⋯⋯前, in view of 考虑到, in spite of 尽管, in accordance with 根据,by means of 用(依靠) , as f rom 自⋯⋯起, as for 至于, apar t from 除⋯⋯外(若无) , except for 除⋯⋯外, as concerns 关于, as compared with 同⋯⋯相比, for want of 因为缺乏, at the cost of 以⋯⋯为代价, over against 在⋯⋯对面(正对着) , down to 下至( 直至) , away from 离开, irrespective of 不顾, with a view to 旨在(目的是) , on the point of正要⋯⋯之际, in the event of 如果发生(万一) , for the sake of 为了, by way of 经由(通过) , up to 一直到, thanks to 由于(多亏) , previous to 先于, due to 由于, 等。   

 

短语介词不同于介词短语。短语介词是用作介词的短语(如with a view to) , 不可独立使用, 本身不能作句子成分, 后面要跟名词、动名词或代词等; 介词短语是由介词+ 宾语构成的短语(如with a view to buying a car ) , 本身可作句子成分, 如作定语、状语等, 可独立使用。   

 

I will help you for the sake o f our f riendship .  

为了我们的友谊, 我是愿意帮助你的。( for the sake of 是短语介词, for the sake of our friendship 是介词短语, 作状语)