18.3 同位语从句 

 

同位语从句是一种名词性从句,用于对其前面的名词进行进一步的说明。这些名词常见的有doubt, fact, message, proof, opinion, hope, impression, evidence, idea, belief, feeling, conclusion, rumour, report, possibility, guarantee, thought, assurance等 

  

1)    由that 引导的同位语从句 

There was little hope that he would survive. 他幸存的希望很小 

We came to the decision that we must act at once. 我们做出决定:我们必须立即行动 

We heard the news that our team had won. 我们听到消息说我们队赢了 

He made a proposal that the meeting be postpone. 他提议会议延期 

There is no doubt that he will keep his promise. 我们相信他会守信 

They expressed the wish that she accept the award. 他们表示希望她接受这笔奖金 

There is no evidence that he committed crime. 没有他犯罪的证据 

  

2) 由连接代副词引导的同位语从句 

I have no idea when he will be back. 我不知道他什么时候会回来 

He had no idea why she left. 他不知道她为什么离开 

The question who was to blame has never been settled. 该由谁负责, 这个问题根本没有解决 

  

3) 由whether 引导的同位语从句 

He hasn't made the decision whether he will go there. 他还没有做出决定是否去那里。  

We are not investigating the question whether he is trustworthy.  

我们不是在调查他是否可以信任的问题 

I have small doubt whether he is suitable for the job. 他是否适合这件工作我有点怀疑 

  

4) 由 what 引导的同位语从句 

I have no idea what he is doing now. 我不知道他现在在干什么 

Next comes the question what you want it for. 其次就是这个问题, 你为什么要它 

  

5) 同位语从句有时和前面的名词分开 

The news got about that the firm was closing down.    消息传开说公司将要倒闭 

Report has it that the princess is getting married this year. 据说公主今年将结婚 

The rumour spread that they had been arrested. 谣传他们被逮捕了 

Word came that he had been abroad. 据说他已经出国了 

 

6) 同位语从句与定语从句的区别 

 

a) 从意义上讲,同位语从句是名词性从句,用于对其前面的名词进行进一步的说明,与先行词是同位的关系;而定语从句是用来修饰先行词,是从属的关系。 

 

b) 从结构上讲,that在同位语从句中为连词,不充当句子成分;而在定语从句中that代替先行词在从句中充当主语、宾语等句子成分 

 

c) 有些引导词如whether, what, how等可以用来引导同位语从句,但它们不能用来引导定语从句 

 

d) 可作同位语从句的先行词的名词比较有限,常见的有doubt, fact, message, proof, opinion, hope, impression, evidence, idea, belief, feeling, conclusion, rumour, report, possibility, guarantee, thought, assurance等。而定语从句的先行词则比较广泛,包括大部分名词及代词 

18.2 非限制性同位语 

 

1)非限制性同位语与其所修饰的成分用逗号, 破折号或冒号隔开 

Mr. Smith, our new teacher, is very kind to us. 我们的新老师史密斯先生对我们很好 

Canberra, the capital city of Australia, is located between Sydney and Melbourne.  

堪培拉是澳大利亚的首都,它位于悉尼和墨尔本之间 

The train finally arrived and two young men -- one big and broad,the other small and slight -- stepped onto the platform. 

火车终于到站,两位年轻人 —— 一位大个儿,体格魁梧;另一位,小个儿,长相瘦弱 —— 踏上了月台 

They have everything they need: land, brains, wealth and technology.  

他们有他们需要的一切:土地,人才,财富和枝术 

  

2)非限制性同位语可有引导词 for example, especially, including 等。 

He is interested in sports, especially ball games. 他喜欢运动,特别是球类运动 

Some students, for example, John, live in the city. 有些学生,例如约翰吧,就住在城里 

Only one boy, namely Nicholas, was late. 只有一个男孩迟到了,就是尼古拉斯。  

She liked all her classes, particularly sewing class. 她喜欢各门课程, 特别是缝纫课 

More than 20 people were killed, including five policemen. 超过20人丧生,其中包括5名警察。 

Some boys, such as Tom and Mike, like to play football.  

有些男孩,例如汤姆和迈克,喜欢踢足球 

  

3)非限制性同位语有时也可用形容词充当。 

All the countries,big or small,are equal. 所有的国家,不分大小都是平等的 

He has read all kinds of books, ancient and modern, Chinese and foreign. 他看了各种和样的书,古今中外都有 

  

4)同位语可以提前, 特别是主语比较短时,用于突出同位语 

A person of French origin,he is now an American citizen. 

他的籍贯在法国,但他现在是美国公民 

Formerly a worker himself, he is now an engineer. 他过去是工人,现在是一名工程师了

第十八章 同位语 

 

同位语紧跟在名词或代词之后,用于补充说明该名词或代词 

 

18.限制性同位语

 

18.2 非限制性同位语

 

18.3 同位语从句

18.限制性同位语 

 

限制性同位语紧随其所修饰的前边的名词之后, 不用逗号或破折号隔开 

  

1)名词作同位语 

He told me that his brother John is a world-famous doctor.  

他告诉我他的兄长约翰是一位世界闻名的医生 

We girls often go to the movies together. 我们女孩子经常一起去看电影 

We your friends are always ready to help you. 我们是你的朋友, 时刻准备帮助你 

Professor Hunter is busy scoring the examinations. 亨特教授正忙于给考试评分。  

The term "fluid" means a substance that can flow. 所谓“流体”是指可流动的物质 

  

2)代词作同位语 

His jokes made us all laugh. 他讲的笑话使我们都笑起来。  

They are both in favor of the plan.他们两人都赞成这个计划 

They each signed the paper. 他们每个人都在文件上签了字。   

The thing itself is not important. 事情本身并不重要 

Myra herself had got a medal for her work for the aged.  

迈拉自己由于悉心为老年人工作而获得一枚奖章 

We none of us said anything. 我们谁也没说话。  

They neither of them wanted to go. 他们两人都不想去 

  

3)数词作同位语 

You two come and sit here.你们两人到这里来坐 

You may leave it to us three. 你可以将这事交给我们三人去做