17.5 状语从句 

 

在复合句中作状语的从句叫状语从句。状语从句有时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步等种类。    

 

17.5.1 时间状语从句   

 

引导时间状语从句的连接词有: when, as, while, after, before, since, ever since, as soon as, once, till, until, whenever, no sooner…than, hardly/scarcely...when, the  moment/minute/instant/second, every time, each time, any time, the first time, next time, last time, all the time, by the time, directly, immediately, instantly等。  

 

1表示“一···就···”的句型  

(1) as soon as/once    As soon as he arrives, I'll call you.他一到,我就给你打电话。(as soon as 侧重时间或动作先后衔接紧,而once侧重条件,表示“一旦...”)  

 

(2) on doing sth/on one's + n.作时间状语     

On arriving at the station, the thief was arrested.   一到达车站,这个小偷就被逮捕了。     

On his arrival in Paris, he was recognized as a noble and thrown into prison.  

他一到达巴黎,就被认出是一个贵族,并被投入监狱。  

 

(3) no sooner ...than , hardly/scarcely...when   

它们表“一„就”。结构中的否定词放在句首时,主句要倒装。(主句都用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。)     

No sooner had he reached home than it began to rain.   他刚到家,天就开始下雨了。    Hardly/Scarcely had I entered the room when the phone rang.   我一进屋,电话就响了。  

 

注意:  

当no sooner, hardly, scarcely不放在句首时,主句不倒装 

I had no sooner reached the bus stop than the bus started.  我刚到车站,车就开走了。     

I had scarcely(hardly)entered the room when the phone rang.  我刚进房间,电话响了 

 

(4)the moment, the instant, the minute, the second    

The moment I saw him, I recognized him.   我一看见他,就认出了他。     

We'll leave the minute you are ready.   你一准备好,我们就出发。   

 

(5)有些副词如:instantly, immediately, directly可用作连词,后接从句。    

I left immediately the clock struck 5.   我刚走,钟就敲了五点。   

 

2when, while, as引导时间状语从句  

 

(1) when的用法   

 

①when既可指时间点,也可指时间段(即:从句动词可以是短暂的也可是延续的);主从句动作可同时也可先后发生。 

 

I was thin when I was a child.    当我是个孩子的时候,我很瘦。     

It was raining when I arrived.我到达时,天正在下雨。   

 

②在when引导时间状语从句时,如果从句主语与主句主语相同或为it,且从句有be动词,则从句可省主语和be动词   

When (you are) in trouble, you can visit this man.   当你有麻烦时,可以找这个人。     

She is always listening to music when(she is) doing her homework.   

当她做作业时,总是听音乐。   

 

③when在下列结构中, 译成“这时”,它引导的是并列句  

be about to do ... when, be doing ... when, had done ···when,  be on one's way ... when, be on the point of doing ... when   

 

(2)while用法  while只能指一段时间,从句中的动词必须是延续性动词。强调某一段时间内发生主句动作,相当于during the time that....     

My mother was cooking while I was doing my homework.   当我在做作业时,妈妈在做饭。     

I am safe while I am here.我在这儿的时候,我很安全。  

 

注意:  

while除引导时间状语从句外,还引导对比句,作“然而”讲;并可在句首引出让步状语从句作“虽然···但”讲。     

I like watching TV, while he likes reading.   我喜欢看电视,而他喜欢读书。     

While he has his own car, he often uses mine.   尽管他自己有车,他却常用我的。  

 

(3) as的用法   

 

① as引导时间状语从句时常可和when换用,但较强调同时发生,多指短暂动作。  

As I left the house, I forgot the key.我离家时,忘了带钥匙。  

 

② as还可说明两种正在发展或变化的情况,“随着...”的意思,表时间的推移。 

As I get older, I get more optimistic. 随着年龄的增长,我变得更加乐观。  

 

③as表“一边„一边„”,引出伴随动作。  

He hurried home, looking behind as he went. 他匆忙地回家,边走边往后看。  

 

④用以强调两个动作紧接着发生。  

As he was going out, it began to rain. 当他出去的时候,天开始下雨了。   

 

⑤as有时引出一个名词,相当于一个时间状语从句。  

As a boy (when he was a boy), he was hopeless at maths. 当他是孩子时,他对数学失去希望。  

 

3before引导的时间状语从句 

 

①before引导的时间状语从句不用否定式谓语。  

Before they got to the bus stop, the bus had gone.   

在他们到达公共汽车站之前,公共汽车已经走了。   

 

②在“It be + 时间段 + before从句”句型中,肯定句译成“„(之后)才”,否定句译成“„就”。该句型有一般过去时、过去将来时、一般将来时三个时态,且有否定句。  

It will be some time before... do...  

It was some time before...did...   

It would be some time before...did...  

It was long before...did...“很久才···”  

It wasn't long before...did...“不久就...”   

It will be many years before the chemicals start to escape from the containers.  

多年以后化学物质才开始从容器中逃逸。  

It was not long before he came back.不久他就回来了。  

It was a long time before he got to sleep again. 很久他才再次入睡。   

It was a week before he could tell his story.   一个星期后他才能讲述他的经历。     

It wasn't long before he told us about himself.   不久他就给我们讲述了他自己的故事。  

 

▲before可译成“未来得及”   

He had measured me before I could get a word. 我还未来得及插话,他就量好了尺寸。  

▲before可译成“趁着还没” I'll write it down before I forget. 趁着还没忘我要把它写下来。  

 

4)until和till    

 

(1)“延续性动词肯定式+until”表示“动作延续到„为止,”译为“直到„为止”。  

I waited for him until he came back. 我一直等到他回来。  

 

(2)“终止性动词的否定式+ until”表示“直到···才”。   

He didn't go to bed until he had finished his work. 直到完成工作他才睡觉。  

 

(3)用于强调句式“It is not until ...that ...”   

It was not until the professor came that we began the experiment.  

在教授到来之后,我们才开始实验。  

 

(4) not until放在句首时,主句倒装。   

Not until he graduated did he succeed in obtaining this compound.   

直到他毕业他才成功获得这种化合物。  

 

注意:  

句首和强调句中要用until,而不用till;not...until...句型中不用till。  

 

5since引导时间状语从句,意为“自从„时起”,主句要用完成时。  

Mr. Li has been here since he came back. 自从李先生回来以后,他一直在这儿。  

I haven't heard from him since he lived here. 自从他住在这儿以来,我就没有收到过他的来信。 I've known Mr. Smith since I was a boy. 我小的时候就认识史密斯先生了。  

 

6时间状语从句的省略式     当时间状语从句的主语和主句主语相同或为it,从句又含be动词时,从句可省略主语和be动词。在不产生歧义时,连词也可省去。 

Once (it is) seen, it can never be forgotten. 一旦被看见过,永远也不会被忘记。    

 

17.5.2 地点状语从句   

 

1地点状语从句主要由where, wherever anywhere, everywhere引导。    

We must camp where we can get water.   我们必须在能找到水的地方露营。    

I will follow you wherever you go.   无论你到何处我都要跟随你。  

 

2地点状语从句与定语从句的区别 

where引导定语从句,从句前应有一个表示地点的名词作先行词。   

Go back where you came from.(where引导地点状语从句)   

Go back to the village where you came from. (where引导定语从句,village为先行词)    

 

17.5.3 原因状语从句      

 

原因状语从句由because, as , since, now (that)(既然), in that(因为,多于口语中),seeing (that)(鉴于,由于),considering that(考虑到)等引导。   

 

1because用来回答why提出的问题,表直接的因果关系,用于告知对方不知道的原因,语气最强,可用于强调句。     

He didn't attend the meeting because he was ill.  他没参加会议,因为他病了。     

It was because he was ill that he didn't go with us.   因为他有病,他没有和我们一起去。  

 

注意 

because和because of的区别:because是连词,引导从句,because of是短语介词,后接名词性词语 

The football match was put off because it rained.    

The football match was put off because of the rain.   因为下雨,足球赛延期了。   

 

2since, as, now that引导的原因状语从句,不能用于强调句。   

 

①since的语气比because稍弱,表示关系上的自然结果,特别用于原因已经清楚了的事情,一般译成“既然,鉴于”(往往放在主句之前) 

Since you have known the secret, I needn't say anything about it.      

既然你已经知道了这个秘密,我就不必说了。   

 

②as语气最弱,说明一般的因果关系,表显而易见的原因或倒果为因的说法(可放在主句之前,亦可放在主句之后)。 

As he didn't know much English, he got out his dictionary and looked up the word “cough”.    

他对英语懂得不多,他拿出字典查找“cough”这个词。     

As the ground is wet, it must have rained last night.(倒果为因)    

昨晚一定下了雨,地面是湿的。   

 

③ now that用来说明一种新情况,然后加以推论。now that放句首时that可省略。 

Now (that) everybody is here, let's begin.   

 

3)for也可以表示原因,属并列连词,不是说明直接原因,而是对某种情况加以推断,表示补充说明理由。而推断的理由会因人而异。语气很弱,它引出的分句必须放在另一分句后。     

He must be ill, for he is absent today.   

 

4)原因状语从句有时可以用分词形式表现。    

As he was blind, he couldn't see anything.    

Being blind, he couldn't see anything.    

 

17.5.4 条件状语从句  

 

1由if, unless(if...not), so/as long as, supposing(that)(假设), in case(万一…, 以防…), so/as far as(就...而言), on condition that(条件是...), provided/providing (that)(假若)引导。   

Tell me about it if you have time.  

I won't go unless I'm invited.   

Take an umbrella with you in case it rains.   

You may use the room as/so long as you clean it up afterwards.   

 

2“祈使句+and/or/or else/otherwise+陈述句”的句型中,祈使句在意义上实际上相当于条件状语从句。     

Use your head, and you'll find a way.     

Hurry up or else (otherwise) you’ll be late.   

 

3if only也可以引导条件状语从句,只不过较少使用而已。only if也引导条件状语从句,意思是“只有在...条件下”    

If (only) it clears up, I will go.   

 

4条件状语从句中一般要用一般现在时态表将来。    

I will go if you go.   

 

5条件状语从句中的省略问题   

 

(1)从句主语为it,又有系动词be时,可以省略从句中主语和be动词。    

Come tomorrow if (it is) possible.    

If so, you must get back and get it.     

 

还有诸如if necessary“如果有必要”,if any“如果有”,if in need“若需要”。   

 

(2)如果if从句的主语和主句的主语一致,谓语动词又有be,可以把从句中的主语和be省略掉。     

If (water is) heated, water sends out steam.  

 

6条件句中的虚拟与倒装   

 

① if引导的条件状语从句若与过去或现在事实不符,或对未来进行不可能的假设,就要用虚拟语气。  

 

②省略if的虚拟条件从句:若条件从句的谓语动词有were, had或should,可以把if省去,而把were,had或should移到主语前构成倒装。  

Had I arrived there earlier, I would have seen him.    

Were it not for him, I would not have the chance to go home.   

Should he be here tomorrow, I would give him a hand.    

 

17.5.5 目的状语从句  

 

由so that(以便), in order that(为了),for fear that(= in case)(以免),lest(以防)引导,谓语常含may, might, can, could, will, would等情态动词。  

They set out early so that they might arrive at the station in good time.  

I'll speak slowly so that/in order that you can understand.   

He wrote the name down for fear that(lest)he would forget.   

 

当从句与主句主语一致时,可用to do, so as to do, in order to do结构换用。    

 

He worked day and night in order that he could succeed.    

He worked day and night in order to succeed.    

 

17.5.6 结果状语从句   

 

1)常用的连词有so that,so ... that, such...that, that(带古英语痕迹)。(结果状语从句中一般无情态动词)     

He had overslept so that he was late for work.    

My pen fell under my desk that I couldn't see it.  

 

2)so/such ...that所用句式  

 

①so + adj(adv) + that从句     

The box is so heavy that I can't carry it.   

 

②so+adj +a/an+单名+ that从句=such a/an+adj.+单名+that从句    

She is so beautiful a girl that all the boys of our class like her.    

=She is such a beautiful girl that all the boys of our class like her.  

 

③so many/few +复名+ that从句     

so much/little+不可数名词+ that从句   

There are so many apples on the desk that we each have one.      

There is so little water that you can't drink.  

 

④such +a/an + adj + 单名+ that从句     

She is such a good girl that she can help you.  

 

⑤such + adj +复名/不可数名+ that从句     

It was such bad weather that we all stayed home.     

He has such interesting books that he keeps reading all day.  

 

注意: 

little表“小,可爱”时,用such不用so修饰。      

He is such a little boy that his patents often teach him something.    

 

17.5.7 方式状语从句  

 

由as, as if (as though)引导。    

Do as you like.      

He spoke as if he had been there before.  

 

注意:  

as if, as though从句与事实相反时用虚拟语气,与事实相符,不用虚拟语气。    

 

17.5.8 比较状语从句   

 

①常用连词than, as ...as..., not as/so... as  

He ran as far as he could.  

I'm not as/so tall as he/him.   

She studies harder than I(study).   

 

②the more ... the more...引导, 且经常以省略形式出现     

The harder you try, the better you will understand.    

 

17.5.9 让步状语从句   

由though, although, as, even if/though , no matter wh-, wh-ever词,whether...or(不管...都),when, while等引导。   

 

1)though, although这两个连词用法基本一样,只是前者口语化,后者较正式,常位于句首,都不与but连用,但可以和yet,still,nevertheless连用。though还可作副词单独放在句尾,表示“然而”的意思。     

Although the TV set is very dear, I still want to buy it.    

Though /Although he was worn out, he kept on working.  

 

2)as引导让步状语时,从句部分用倒装语序,句型为:  

 

①形容词/副词/名词+ as +主 +谓  

 

②动词+ as +主 +情态动词  

Child as he is, he knows a lot.   

Proud as these nobles are, they are afraid to see me.  

Great a scientist as he is, he remains modest.  

Try as I might, I couldn't lift the stone.  

 

注意: 

在这种倒装结构中,也可以用though(不太常用),但不可用although.     

Bravely though the players fought, they had no chance of winning.  

 

3)even if(尽管;即使), even though(尽管)     

这两个复合连词意义基本相同,常用以强调让步概念,有退一步想的意思(有时用于虚拟)。表“即使”时有假设含义,一般用even if。    

We'll make trip even if(though) the weather is bad.     

Even if I were in your place, I wouldn't take the job.(虚拟)  

 

4)“whether... or...”可引导让步状语从句    

Whether you believe it or not, it is true.  

 

5)“no matter + wh-”引导让步状语从句   

引导让步状语从句时“疑问句-ever”相当于“no matter +疑问词”,此时:  

no matter who = whoever  

no matter what = whatever  

no matter which = whichever  

no matter where = wherever  

no matter how = however   

No matter what happened, he would not mind.   

It's a nice room no matter whom (whoever) it belongs to.   

 

6)“no matter + wh-”结构只能引导让步状语从句,而“wh-ever”形式除引导让步状语从句外,还可以引导名词性从句。    

引导名词性从句时:   

whoever = anyone who任何…的人…   

whatever = anything that任何…的事(物)  

whenever = anyplace where任何…的地方  

I will give the book to whoever needs it.  

I like whatever you like.   

 

7)when引导让步状语从句时置于主句后  

 

①虽然···却···,尽管···但···     

He walks when he might take a taxi.  

 

②本(应...,可以...)却...。   

when从句用虚拟式为:could/should ... have done    

She stopped trying when she might succeed next time.   

 

8)while引导让步状语从句时置于主句前,与though同,但though从句可到装,while从句不可倒装。   

 

9)让步状语从句中用一般现在时表将来。    

No matter what he is, he will be punished.    

 

17.5.10 状语从句的省略现象      

当状语从句的主语与主句的主语相同或为it,  

同时从句谓语含be动词,就可省去从句的主语和be动词。    

 

①时间状语从句中:   

Don’t speak until (you are) spoken to.  

While (I was) in Beijing, I lived with my uncle.  

I want to go swimming when (it is) possible.    

 

②条件状语从句中:  

Come tomorrow if (it is) possible.  

If (it is) so, you would be punished.  

Unless (it is) repaired, the TV set is of no use.    

 

③方式状语从句中:  

She stood at the gate as if (she was) waiting for someone.    

 

④其他状语从句中:  

Though (it was) cold, he still wore a shirt.  

Fill in the blanks with proper words where (it is) necessary. 

17.4 状语的位置 

  

17.4.状语修饰动词时的位置 

 

1) 状语修饰动词,常位于动词之后 

His father has died suddenly. 他父亲突然去世了 

The police came at once after receiving my call. 警察接到我的电话就立刻赶来了 

Light travels extremely fast. 光的速度极快 

  

2) 如果动词之后有跟宾语,则状语要位于宾语之后。     

His eyes adapted to the dark slowly. 他的眼睛慢慢适应了黑暗 

The lady wanted to see her kid very badly. 那位女士很渴望见到她的小孩 

  

3) 状语也可以置于动词之前,特别是一些副词 

They quickly got used to this new way of life. 他们很快就适应了这种新生活方式 

The little snail slowly moves to the door of its shell. 小蜗牛慢慢地爬到壳口 

  

: 

1) 当需要对状语进行强调时,可以将状语移到句首 

After midnight, the curfew began. 午夜之后,宵禁开始了 

  

2) 有时状语可以移位到宾语之前。这时比较考验阅读者的语感。 

He was very tall and carried over his head an umbrella. 他很高,头上撑着一把伞 

  

17.4.状语修饰副词或形容词时的位置 

 

状语修饰副词或形容词时,通常位于副词或形容词之前 

Given his age, this is absolutely impossible. 鉴于他的年龄,这绝对是不可能的 

We can't go any further. 我们不能再往前走了 

  

注意: 

副词enough 比较特别,应放于形容词和副词之后 

He was intelligent enough to turn off the gas. 他关掉了煤气,够聪明的 

We didn't leave early enough. 我们离开得不够早 

  

17.4.状语也可以位于句首,修饰整个句子或起连接作用 

Admittedly, the local people didn't know that at the time. 不可否认,当地的人当时并不知道情况 

It's too late to go out now. Besides, it starts raining outside.  

现在出去太晚了。此外,外边也开始下起雨来了 

  

17.4.状语还可以作为插入成分,特别是插入到主语和谓语之间 

This is, in fact, a new type of humour这个事实上是一种新式的幽默 

Susan, horrified at what she had seen, could not say a word.  

苏珊被看到的东西吓着了,什么话也说不出

17.2 状语种类 

 

英语中的状语按其用途,可以分为时间状语、地点状语、方面状语、原因状语、结果状语、目的状语、条件状语、让步状语、程度状语、方式状语、伴随状语等11种。   

 

1)时间状语   

She is to be married next month. 她预定在下个月结婚。   

I’ll meet you at 4 o’clock. 我将在4点钟和你见面。   

A lot of students missed my lecture yesterday. 昨天许多学生误了我的课。   

 

2)地点状语   

He lives over the mountain.  他住在山的那一边。   

I first met him in Paris. 我初次见到他是在巴黎。   

The children are swimming in the river. 孩子们正在河里游泳。   

注:地点状语除表位置外,还可以表“出发”“去向”“距离”等。如:   

Are you glad to be going back to school? 返回学校你感到高兴吗   

They lived many miles from the town. 他们住的地方离镇子好几英里远。   

 

3)方面状语   

She is very weak in physics. 她物理很不行。   

China is very rich in natural resources. 中国自然资源丰富。   

This is better in every way than that. 这个在哪一方面都比那个要好。   

The bridge is 2500 meters in length and 150 meters in height. 这座桥长2500米,高150米。   

 

4)原因状语   

He was surprised at what she said. 听到她说的话,他很吃惊。   

He succeeded by hard work. 他由于努力工作而成功。   

He was sent to prison for robbery. 他因为抢劫而坐牢。   

Last week she fell ill from cold. 上星期她着凉生病了。   

We’re proudof our motherland. 我们为祖国感到骄傲。   

 

5)结果状语   

He talked his wife into buying a car. 他说服他妻子买一辆小汽车。   

The box is too heavy for me to lift. 这个箱子太重了,我提不动。   

It rained heavily, causing severe flooding in that country.  

大雨滂沱,造成了那个国家洪水泛滥。   

He went to Africa in 1963, never to come back.  

他在1963年到非洲,然后就再也没回来过了。   

 

6)目的状语   

They went out for a walk. 他们出去散步了。   

He saves on behalf of his son. 他为儿子存钱。   

He stood aside for her to pass. 他靠边站让她过去。   

He cupped his ear to hear better. 他的手捂着耳朵,以便听得更清楚。   

He went to the south in search of a better life. 他去南方寻求更好的生活。   

I went to Francenot to study French, but to study architecture.  

我去法国不是为了学法语,而是为了学建筑。   

 

7)条件状语   

Can you see without your glasses? 你不戴眼镜能看得清东西吗?   

United, we standdivided, we fall. 团结则存,分裂则亡。   

With more money I would be able to buy it. 钱多一点的话,我就买得起。   

To look at him you could hardly help laughing. 看到他你就会忍不住笑起来。   

We must be losing at least a third of our staff under new technology. 在新的技术条件下,我们必定要解雇至少三分之一的员工。   

Weather permitting, we’ll have the match tomorrow. 天气允许的话,我们将于明天进行比赛。   

 

8)让步状语   

For all his money, he’s a very lonely man. 他虽然富有,可是非常寂寞。   

Carol went to work in spite of feeling ill. 卡洛尔尽管感到不舒服仍去上了班。   

With all his efforts, he lost the match. 虽然尽了全力,他还是输了那场比赛。   

You couldn’t do that to save your life. 你即使为了救自己的命也不能那样做。   

Laughed at by everybody, he had my sympathy. 人人都嘲笑他,但我却同情他。   

Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage.  

他们尽管了解这一切,还是要我赔偿损失。   

 

9)程度状语   

I don’t like coffee very much. 我不太喜欢咖啡。   

To a great extent, it is not fair. 在很大程度上,这是不公平的。   

The system which is used in this school is very successful.  

这个学校所施行的制度是非常成功的。   

 

10)方式状语   

We came on the bus. 我们坐公共汽车来的。   

You must pay the bill in cash. 你必须用现金付账。   

I watched the game on television. 我在电视上收看了那场比赛。   

We see with our eyes, and hear with our ears. 我们用眼睛看,用耳朵听。   

I heard of the job through a newspaper advertisement. 我从报上的广告中知道了这个工作。   

 

11)伴随状语   

I slept with the window open. 我开着窗睡觉。   

She said good-bye with tears in her eyes. 她含着泪水说再见。   

He ran up to her breathing heavily. 他气喘吁吁地跑到她跟前。   

He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat. 他满脸是汗跑进屋来。 

17.3 状语的词和结构 

 

1) 副词 
This car engine runs very quietly这辆汽车的发动机噪音很小。 
He immediatelyswitched off the light. 他立刻把灯熄灭。 
Undoubtedly, he is the best chess player in this country.  

毫无疑问,他是这个国家最好的(国际象棋)棋手。 

 

2) 介词短语 
Fresh water was taken to this area by air新鲜的水通过空运到达这里。 
I have been waiting for more than half an hour我已经等了不只半小时。 

 

3) 不定式 
I went there to see my old friend我到那里去见我的老朋友。 
To be honest, I am still quite confused about this. 说实话,我仍然对这个感到很困惑。 

 

4) 现在分词 
Having arrived at a decision, they immediately set to work. 做出决定后,他们就立即开始工作。 
He hurriedly ran into the house looking for places to hide他匆匆跑进屋里寻找藏身之地。 

 

5) 过去分词 
Compared to ourstheir house is a palace. 他们的房子和我们的相比简直就是皇宫。. 
She came in, followed by her husband她走进来,丈夫跟随其后。 

 

6) 形容词 
Anxious for a quick decision, the chairman called for a vote. 因为急于快速作出决定,主席要求投票表决。 
He said nothing but sat silentsmoking. 他什么话也没说,只是静静坐在那里抽着烟。 

 

7) 名词 
See you next week下周见。 
They consider it better to do it that way他们认为那样做更妥当些。 

 

8)从句(状语从句) 
She looked at me curiously as I opened the door我开门时,她好奇地看着我。 
I’ll come to your place when I am free我一有空就会到你那里。 

 

9) 独立主格 
Everything prepared, we started our new journey. 一切准备就绪,我们开始新的旅程。 

 

10) 复合结构 
With the task completed successfully, they went home happily. 成功地完成任务后,他们高兴地回了家。

17.1 状语在句子中的主要作用 

 

1) 修饰动词 
状语在句子中很多时候用于修饰动词(包括谓语动词非谓语动词)。用于表示动词发生的时间、地点、程度、方式、原因、结果、目的、条件、让步、比较、伴随等。 

You can put it down anywhere你可以随便放哪里都行。 (表地点) 
The company will go bankrupt unless business improves. 

如果生意再无起色,公司非倒闭不可。(表条件) 
The meeting has been called off last nightafter the deadly explosion.  

昨晚发生致命爆炸袭击之后,会议已经被取消。(表时间) 
Seeing nobody in the office, she had to leave a note.  

看到没有人在办公室,她只好留下张便条。 (表原因) 

 

2) 修饰形容词或副词(状语) 
这类状语用于表示所修饰的形容词或副词的程度,起到增强、减弱或强调的作用。 
Most of them are completely innocent. 他们中大多数人是完全无辜的。 
This is a highly effective way to refine sugar. 这是一个制糖的高效方法。 

They will arrive here pretty soon. 他们很快就会到达这儿。 
Eggs are extremely well adapted to men's needs. 蛋极易适合人的需要。 

 

3) 修饰整个句子的状语。