15.7 状语移位到宾语前面的情况 

 

有时由于宾语太长等原因,作者可把状语移位到宾语前面以保持句子的平衡。 
Please translate into English the Chinese given in brackets. 请把括号里的中文译成英文。 
He took out of his bag a knife. 他从提包里拿出一把刀子。 
The writer spread before the readers the information he has collected so far.  

作者向读者展示了他至今收集到的信息。 
She was told by the policemen that her husband had been arrested.  

她被警察告知其丈夫已被逮捕。 
She announced at the meeting that she was going to resign. 她在会上宣布她准备辞职。 

15.6 先行词it作形式宾语 

 

有时由于宾语太长,常用it 作为先行宾语,而把真正的宾语放到句子后部。这种情况在复合宾语中尤为常用。 

 

1)it 代表后移的不定式 
I don't feel it difficult to understand him. 我觉得听明白他讲的话并不难。 
She found it hard to make good friends there. 她发现在那儿很难交到好朋友。 
Better technology makes it possible to produce more crops in the farm.  

更好的技术使农产品增加成为可能。 
He made it a rule to study in the early morning. 他让早起学习成为自己的惯例。 

 

2) it 代表后移的宾语从句 
The headmaster has made it clear that the school meeting will not be put off.  

校长说得很清楚校会不会推迟。 
I take it for granted that you will win the first prize. 我认为你获一等奖是理所当然的事。 
He hasn't made it clear when he is coming back. 他没有说明他什么时候回来。 
I take it that you have been out. 我以为你一直出门在外。 
You can put it that it was arranged before. 你可以说这是以前安排的。 
I hate it when people talk with their mouths full. 我讨厌人们一边吃饭一边说话。 
I like it when the weather is clear and bright. 我喜欢晴朗的天气。 

 

3) it 代表后移的动名词 
They took it their duty taking good care of the wounded soldiers.  

他们认为照顾好伤病员是他们的责任。 
I found it no good arguing with him. 我发现和他争论没有用。 
I think it very unwise going on like this. 我认为这样进行下去很不明智。 

15.4 宾语从句 

 

15.4.1 由that 引导的宾语从句 

 

许多动词可以跟由that引导的宾语从句,that 有时可以省略。 

He says (that) he is a Young Pioneer.他说他是个少先队员。 

We know that it is an interesting story.我们知道它是一个有趣的故事。 

I hope (that) he will be fine soon.我希望他很快好起来。 

 

15.4.2 由连接代词引导的宾语从句 

 

连接代词也可以引导宾语从句。连接代词在宾语从句中可作主语、宾语、表语、定语等。  

 

1)作主语 

Do you know who will come this afternoon? 你知道今天下午谁来吗? 

I do not know what causes the trouble. 我不知道是什么引起了麻烦。 

The editor decides which will be the most important story on the front page.  

编辑决定哪篇报道最重要,安排在头版。 

  

2)作宾语 

Did you hear what she said? 你听见她说的话了吗? 

As a friend of yours, I want to tell you what I hear.  

作为你的朋友,我想告诉你我听到的情况。 

I asked him whom they had chosen. 我问他,他们选了谁 

  

3)作表语 

Please tell me who that girl is. 请告诉我那个姑娘是谁。 

I don't know whose that is.我不知道那是谁的 

She had demanded to know whose the child was. 她要求知道这孩子是谁的。 

  

4)作定语 

Could you tell me which gate we have to go to? 请问我们得走哪个门? 

Have you decided what music you'd like us to play at the party?  

你已决定你想让我们在聚会上演什么音乐了吗? 

You may take whichever book will interest you. 哪本书让你觉得有趣,你可以拿哪本。 

 

15.4.3 由连接副词引导的宾语从句  

   

We didn't know when she would come back.我们不知道她什么时候回来。   

None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.    

没有人知道这些的新的零件能在哪里买到。   

Could you please tell me how you use the new panel? 你能告诉我怎么用这个新的操作盘吗 

 

15.4.4 由 whether 和 if 引导的宾语从句 

 

Nobody knows whether (if) it will rain tomorrow. 没有人知道明天是否下雨。 

The old woman asked me if (whether) I knew the way to the hospital.  

老妇人问我是否知道去医院的路。 

Tom asked if (whether) I had read the book. 汤姆问我是否看过这本书 。 

I want to know whether it's good news or not. 我想知道是否是好消息。 

 

15.4.5 由what 引导的从句 

 

I think Father would like to know what I've been up to so far, so I decided to send him a quick note. 我想父亲想知道目前我在做什么,所以我决定给他发个短信。 

Our hometown has changed a lot, and now it is quite different from what it used to be a few years ago.  

我们的家乡变化很大,它现在与数年前的样子完全不同。 

A modern city has been set up in what was a wasteland ten years ago.  

一座现代化城市已经在十年前是垃圾场的地方拨地而起。 

 

15.4.6 由 whatever, whichever, whoever, whomever 引导的宾语从句 

 

I don't believe whatever he said. 无论他说什么我都不信。 

He does Whatever she asks him to do. 她要他做什么,他就做什么。 

I'll give the ticket to whoever wants it. 请想要这票,我就把它给谁。 

I'll take whoever wants to go. 谁想去我就带谁去。 

Take whichever you like. 哪个你喜欢你就拿哪个。 

I'll take whichever books you don't want. 你不要的任何书我都要。 

Give it to whomever you like. 你愿意把它给谁就给谁。 

 

15.4.7 由连接代词或连接副词加不定式组成的宾语从句 

 

We can't decide whom to vote. 我们不能决定该邀请谁。 

He gave a lesson on how to improve soil. 他讲了一堂关于怎样改善土壤的课。 

We must decide what to do with her. 我们必须决定怎么处置她。 

 

15.4.8 宾语从句在句子中的位置 

 

宾语从句通常直接位于动词之后,但也有以下其他情况。 

  

1) 位于间接宾语之后的宾语从句 

有的宾语从句不直接位于动词之后,而是位于间接宾语之后,作直接宾语。 

I reminded her how much the ticket was. 我提醒她票的价钱。 

He informed the police that some money was missing. 他向警方报案说有些钱不见了。 

Can you tell me what the time is? 你能告诉我现 在几点钟吗? 

  

2) 宾语从句作介词的宾语 

It is a question of whether we can find the necessary money.  

这是个我们能否找到所需款项的问题。  

I could say nothing but that I was sorry. 我只能说我很抱歉。  

I know nothing about my new neighbor except that he used to work with a company.  

对于我的新邻居我只知道他曾在一家公司上班,其他一无所知. 

  

3) be + adj. + 宾语从句 

I'm afraid (that) he can't come.恐怕他不能来了。 

I am sorry I haven't written to you for so long. 真抱歉,我很长时间没给你写信了。 

I am not sure when he will come. 我不确定他什么时候将会来。 

He's doubtful whether he can afford it. 他怀疑他能否出得起这笔钱。 

  

4) v. + to + n. + 宾语从句 

You should indicate to the team where they are to assemble. 你应该示意团队在哪里集合。 

She said to her mother that she would not marry anyone except him.  

她对她母亲说除了他之外她谁也不嫁。 

 

15.4.8 宾语从句的否定转移 

 

当主句的谓语动词是 think, believe, expect, guess 等表示 “认为,相信,期望, 猜想”等意思,主句的主语是第一人称,且主句时态为一般现在时的时候,宾语从句的否定一般要转移到主句上来。其反意疑问句一般与宾语从句一致。 

  

I don't think she will come to the party tonight. 我想她今晚不会来参加晚会。(一般不说: I think she will not come to the party tonight.) 

I don't believe the boy is killed by Jim, is he? 我认为那个男孩不是吉姆所杀的,是不是? 

 

15.4.9 宾语从句的时态呼应 

 

如果主句为过去时态,那么宾语从句通常要采用相应的过去时态。 

  

I didn't know when he leaved the office. 我不知道他什么时候离开办公室。 

I was so glad that they were doing well. 我很高兴他们做得很好。 

He didn't think that Peter had told the true. 我不认为彼得讲了实话。 

She hoped she would go back home immediately. 她希望立即回家。 

He asked her if she was going to set off early next morning. 他问她是否第二天一早就出发。 

  

注意:  在一些特殊情况下, 从句时态不随着主句的时态变化。 

  

1) 表示永恒真理时。 

Scientists proved that light travels faster than sound. 科学家证明了光速比声速快。 

When we were children, we were told that China is the east of the world.  

我们是小孩子的时候, 人们就告诉我们说中国在世界的东方。 

  

2)在口语中为了避免误会时也可以不变。 

She said she's leaving tonight. 他说她今晚走。 

Tom said he'll do it. 汤姆说这事他来做。 

He told me just now that his wife is ill. 他刚才告诉我他妻子病了。 

  

3) 使用虚拟语气时。 

She demanded that I pay her immediately. 他要求我立即付款给她。 

He insisted that Jennie send her to dancing school. 他坚持要珍妮送她进舞稻学校。 

They proposed that Mr. Smith be the chairman. 他们提议史密斯生生担任主席。 

 

15.4.10 用it作形式宾语的宾语从句 

 

有时宾语从句会移到句子后部,而用it作其先行形式宾语。这种情况在复合宾语中尤为常用。 

  

The headmaster has made it clear that the school meeting will not be put off  

校长说得很清楚校会不会推迟。 

I take it for granted that you will win the first prize. 我认为你获一等奖是理所当然的事。 

He hasn't made it clear when he is coming back. 他没有说明他什么时候回来。 

I take it that you have been out. 我以为你一直出门在外。 

You can put it that it was arranged before. 你可以说这是以前安排的。 

I hate it when people talk with their mouths full. 我讨厌人们一边吃饭一边说话。 

I like it when the weather is clear and bright. 我喜欢晴朗的天气。 

15.5 主语补足语 

 

含有复合宾语的句子,当采用被动语态时,原来的宾语变成主语,原来的宾语补足语则因此变为主语补足语。试对比下面句子。 

We call him Jason. (名词作宾语补足语我们叫他贾森。 
He is called Jason. (名词作主语补足语)他叫贾森。 

We must keep these products dry. (形容词作宾语补足语我们必顺保持产品干燥。 
These products must be kept dry. (形容词作主语补足语)这些产品必顺保持干燥。 

He turned the light off. (副词作宾语补足语他关掉了灯。 
The light was turned off. (副词作主语补足语灯关了。 

I saw him playing basketball yesterday. (现在分词作宾语补足语)我昨天看见他正在打蓝球。 
He was seen playing basketball yesterday. (现在分词作主语补足语)昨天看见他正在打蓝球。 

He instructed us to wait here. (不定式作宾语补足语)他指示我们在这儿等。 
We are instructed to wait here. (不定式作主语补足语)我们得到指示在这儿等。 

We should keep the cards in good order. (介词短语作宾语补足语)我们应该保持卡片排好序。 
The cards should be kept in good order. (介词短语作主语补足语)卡片必顺排好序。 

15.3 复合宾语(宾语补足语) 

 

复合宾语是指宾语由两部分组成。 后面部分也可称为宾语的补语。 

 

15.3.宾语补足语的一般情况 
 

宾语补足语通常紧随于宾语之后。 

 

1) 名词(代词) + 形容词 (即形容词作宾语补语) 
Do you think his idea wrong? 你认为他的意见错了吗? 
We must keep our classroom clean. 我们必须保持教室清洁。 

 

2) 名词(代词) + 名词 (即名词作宾语补语) 
We call him Jack. 我们叫他杰克。 
He considers himself an expert on the subject. 他认为自己是这门学科的专家。 

 

3) 名词(代词) +现在分词(即现在分词作宾语补语) 
I saw them playing football. 我看见他们正在踢足球。 
When he awoke, he found himself being looked after by a pretty young nurse.  

当他醒来后, 他发现一个年轻漂亮的护士在照料他。 

 

4) 名词(代词) +过去分词(即过去分词作宾语补语) 
I had my bike stolen. 我的自行车被偷了。 
I saw the ground covered with snow. 我看到地上覆盖着雪。 

 

5) 名词(代词) + 介词短语(即介词短语作宾语补语) 
We found everything in good order. 我们发现一切井然有序。 
He awoke to find the house on fire. 他醒来时发现房子着了火。 
When I called on Tom, I found him at his desk. 我拜访汤姆时,发现他在伏案工作。 
We have him as our good friend. 我们把他视为好朋友。 

 

6) 名词(代词) + 副词 (即副词短语作宾语补语) 
Send them back. 把它们退回去。 
I can't get the nail out. 我没法把这个钉子拔出。 
Please turn the light off before you leave. 离开前请关灯。 

 

7) 名词(代词) +不定式(即不定式作宾语补语) 
 

a. to 的不定式作宾语补语 
We invited him to come to our school. 我们邀请他来我们学校。 
We can't allow them to do that. 我们不能容许他们那样做。 
I warn you not to believe a word he says. 我提醒你, 对他讲的话一句也不要信。 

 

b. 有些动词只跟不带to的不定式作宾语补语 
I often hear him read English in his room. 我常听见他在房间里读英语。 
Please let me do it. 请让我做。 
They made me repeat the story. 他们逼我又把那事讲了一遍. 
I saw him put the key in the lock. 我看见他把钥匙插进锁孔. 
She watched him repair the bicycle. 她看着他修理单车。 
Did you notice anyone come in? 你注意到有人进来了吗? 

 

c. 动词help 可以跟带to 的不定式作宾语补语,也可以跟不带to的不定式作宾语补足语。但被动时则要加to。 
She sometimes helps her mother (to) wash clothes. 她有时帮她妈妈洗衣服。 
I helped him (to) find his things. 我帮他找东西. 
They were helped to complete the project. 他们得到帮助完成项目。 
 

15.3.宾语补足语有时可被移到宾语之前,特别是宾语较长或宾语是从句时。 
 

1)副词补足语提前 
副词补足语提前在英语中比较常见。 

He took off his coat immediately. 他立即脱下外套。 
It is difficult to sort out the lies from the truth. 很难从事实中区分出谎言。 
Can you make out who is over there talking with our teacher?  

你能认出那边正和我们老师谈话的人是谁吗? 

 

2)形容词补足语提前 
The improvement in technology made possible the rise of production.  

技术的改进使产量增加成为可能。 
The teacher made clear the difference between the two words. 老师清楚地说明了两个词的区别。 
In recent years, China has continuously made public its military expenditure through white paper.  

近年来中国连续以白皮书的形式向世界公布了自己的军费开支情况。 
I beg you to keep secret what we talked here. 我求你对这里所谈的话保密。 

 

3) 现在分词和过去分词作补足语有时也可以被移到宾语前。 
She found sitting on the desk a guy dressed like a student.  

她见到一个学生打扮的小伙子坐在桌子上。 
He found hidden behind the rock a plant which he had never seen before.  

他发现一棵从未见过的植物隐藏在岩石后边。 

 

15.3.介词宾语的宾语补足语 (with/without复合结构) 
 

介词with/without 的宾语也常可有宾语补足语,构成复合结构, 表示方式、补充说明、伴随动作、 时间、 条件或原因等。 

 

1)with/without + n. + 现在分词 
With the boy leading the way, we quickly found the house.  

有男孩带路,我们很快找到那所房间。 
The English class ended with all students singing an English song.  

英语课以全体学生合唱一首英语歌而结束。 
I can't move about in the city without everybody knowing.  

在这座城市我的行踪无法不让大家知道。 

 

2)with/without + n. + 过去分词 
With a lot of problems settled, the newly-elected president is having a good time.  

解决了许多问题之后,新上任的总统有一个好的时光。 
With the homework finished, he was allowed to watch the football match.  

完成作业之后,他被允许看足球赛。 

 

3)with/without + n. + 形容词 
Before he came here, my father used to sleep with his eyes open.  

我父亲来这儿之前,常常睁着眼睛睡觉。 
It was cold outside, the boy ran into the room with his nose red.  

外面天气很冷,那个男孩跑进了屋子时,鼻子红红的。 

 

4)with/without + n. + 介词短语 
The teacher came into the classroom with a book in his hand.  

老师手里拿着本书走进了教室。 
He was asleep with his head on his arms. 他头放在手臂上睡着了。 

 

5)with/without + n. + 副词 
He was standing there with nothing on. 他一丝不挂地站在那里。 
We went home with our work over. 我们工作做完就回家了。