13.3 主语从句 

 

主语从句是在句子中充当主语的从句。它与其它名词性从句一样,通常由连接代词或连接副词引导。 

 

13.3.1 由that 引导的主语从句 
That she lacks experience is obvious. 她缺少经验,这是显然的 
That you will win the medal seems unlikely. 你想获得奖牌看起来是不可能的 
That you are so indifferent bothers me. 你如此冷淡使我很烦恼 

 

13.3.2 由连接代词引导的主语从句 
* What you need is more practice. 你需要的是更多的练习 
* Which of them escaped from the prison is still a mystery.  

他们哪一个是从监狱里逃跑的,仍然是个谜。 

 

13.3.3 由连接副词引导的主语从句 
When they will come hasn't been made public. 他们什么时候来还没有公布 
Where she has gone is not known yet. 她去了哪儿,还不知道 
How the prisoner escaped is a mystery. 犯人是如何逃跑的是个迷 
Why he did it will remain a puzzle forever. 为什么他做那件事将永远是个谜团 
 

13.3.4 由whether引导的主语从句 
Whether he will join us won't make too much difference. 他是否加入我们,没有太大的差别 
Whether she is coming or not doesn't matter too much. 她来不来都无关紧要 

 

13.3.5. 由 what 引导的主语从句 
What she did is not yet known. 她干了什么尚不清楚 
What I want to know is this. 我想知道的就是这事 
What you need is more practice. 你所需要的是更多的训练 

 

13.3.6 以it作形式主语的主语从句 
 

1) it + be + 形容词 + 从句 
It is doubtful whether she will be able to come. 她是否能来令人怀疑 
It is essential that he should be here by the weekend. 周末之前,他应该到这里是必要的 
It was clear (that) his words pleased her. 显然他的话使她很高兴 

 

2) it + be + 名词 + 从句 
* It is common knowledge that the whale is not a fish. 鲸鱼不是鱼,这是常识 
* It is no surprise that Bob should have won the game. 鲍勃会赢得这场比赛,这不足为奇 

 

3) it + 动词 (+宾语或状语) + 从句 
It does not interest me whether you go or not. 我对你去不去不感兴趣 
It shocked me that Peter did not tell anybody where he was.  

让我吃惊的是彼得没有告诉任何人他在哪里。 
It happened that she was out. 碰巧她外出了 

 

4) it + 动词的被动语态 + 从句 
It is thought that he is the best player. 大家都认为他是最好的选手 
It is estimated that the vase is 2000 years old. 据估计这个花瓶有2000年的历史。 

 

13.3.7 由whatever, whoever, whichever 等引导的主语从句 
Whatever was said has left us much to think. 这里说的话都应当保密。  
Whoever says that is a liar. 说那话的人是个骗子. 
Whichever comes in first will receive a prize. 谁先到就会获奖 

 

8. 由 just because 引导的主语从句 
由just because 引导的主语从句通常只用于 "Just because...doesn't mean..."句型中。  
Just because her eyes don't tear, doesn't mean her heart doesn't cry.  

只是因为眼泪没有掉下来,并不代表她在心里没有哭泣 
Just because he's over sixty doesn't mean he must retire.  

仅仅是年过60这一点并不意味着他一定退休。60这一点并不意味着他一定退休。 

13.2 it作形式主语 

 

当句子的主语是不定式、动名词或主语从句时,常常可以用it作形式主语,而把真正的主语移到句子后部。用it作形式主语的好处是避免句子由于主语太长而显得头重脚轻。 

 

13.2.1 it作不定式的形式主语 
 

1) it + be + 形容词 + 不定式 
It is difficult to get there before dark. 天黑以前赶到那里很困难 
It is better to get up early. 早起会更好 

 

2) it + be + 名词 + 不定式 
It was his duty to attend to this matter. 处理这个问题是他的责任 
It is the file system's job to manage writing data between the disks and memory.  

在内存和磁盘上管理数据是文件系统要处理的东西。 

 

3) it + 动词 + 宾语 + 不定式 
It takes a lot of effort to recover the system. 恢复系统不是一件容易的事情 
It makes me sad to hear that you have to go away. 听说你一定要走,我很难过 

 

4) it + be + 介词短语 + 不定式 
It is against the law to steal. 偷窃是犯法的 

 

13.2.2 it作动名词的形式主语 
 

1) it + be + 名词 + 动名词 (常用的名词有no good, no use, nuisance, a waste, a wonder 等) 
It’s a wonder meeting you here! 在这里遇见你真是个奇迹 
It’s no use doing a lot of work without thoughtful planning.  

没有考虑周到的计划而做一大堆工作是没用的。 
 

2) it + be + 形容词 + 动名词 
It was very difficult getting everything ready in time. 要及时做好一切准备很难 
Is it worthwhile hating each other over such a trifle? 为了这么点事儿,你俩至于结冤吗 

 

3) 其他情况 
It doesn’t matter putting these two files together. 把这两份文件放在一起没关系 
It doesn’t make any difference my being here. 我是否在这儿并不能改变什么 

(注:这里my为动名词的逻辑主语 

 

13.2.3 it作主语从句的形式主语 
 

1) it + be + 形容词 + 从句 
It is clear that the chosen pattern is not the correct one. 显然,所选择的图式是错误的 
It is doubtful whether this method is more scientific. 这个方法是否更科学值得怀疑 

 

2) it + be + 名词 + 从句 
It is a pity that we shall have to leave tomorrow. 我们明天必须离开,真是遗憾 
It is a complete mystery what caused the accident. 是什么引起这场事故完全是个谜 

 

3) it + 动词 (+宾语或状语) + 从句 
It matters little who does it so long as it is done. 只要事情做了,谁做都行 
It happens that his sister is a closed friend of mine. 碰巧她姐姐是我的一个好朋友。  

 

4) it + 动词的被动语态 + 从句 
It is said that the rhythm of tides is affected by the moon. 据说潮汐的涨落受月亮的影响 
It is estimated that the output will increase by 20% this year. 今年预计产量将提高20%。 

 

5) it + 介词 + 从句 
It is out of question that China's economy will keep growing for 40 years.  

中国经济增长40年应该不成问题。 

第十三章 主语

主语是句子的核心成分之一。与其它成分比较,主语相对来说变化比较少,位置通常位于句首,倒装句时除外。大部分主语由名词、代词或名词短语充当,表示动作的施动者。但除了名词及代词之外,还有一些结构可以充当主语。 

13.1 可以充当主语的词和结构 

13.2 it作形式主语

13.3 主语从句 

 

13.1 可以充当主语的词和结构 

 

1) 名词 
My love for you is deeper than the sea. 我对你的爱比海深 
Many students didn’t pass the exam. 许多学生没有通过考试 
The young should show respect to the old. 年轻人应该尊重老年人。(注: the young 为形容词名词化) 

 

2) 代词 
He broke the window immediately. 他立即打破窗 
It will just take a few minutes. 只需要只分钟 
That isn’t what I meant at all. 那根本不是我的意思 
Yours is the best answer. 你的答案最佳 

 

[注] 疑问代词也可以作主语。 
 

What produce the energy? 什么产生能量 
Which of the two methods is superior? 这两种方法哪一种好 

 

3) 数词 
Three is the ideal number for our small team. 我们的小组三个人最为理想 
Two of them survived the accident. 他们中的两个逃过了这场意外事故 

 

4)动名词 
Smoking can cause cancer. 吸烟可致癌 
Talking to local people is a good way to learn English. 与本土人讲话是学习英语的一个好方法 

 

5)不定式 
To say something is one thing, to do it is another. 说是一回事,做是另一回事 
To compromise should be advisable. 妥协应该是明智的 

 

6)从句(主语从句) 
What you think is not right. 你所想的是不对的 
Where we should go tomorrow is still not decided. 我们还没决定明天去哪 

 

以上的词和结构覆盖了主语的绝大部分情况,但实际应用中,由于表达的需要,主语还可以是其它形式,比如副词,介词短语等。 
 

Before seven will be too early. 七点钟之前太早了 
Slowly is exactly how he speaks他说话就是慢吞吞的 
"Power to the people" is their slogan. “一切权力归人民”是他们的口号