12.5 复合句 
 

由一个主句和一个或者一个以上从句所 构成的句子。在英语书面语中应用广泛。 主句是一个完整的句子,它可以独立存在。 从句是一个不完整的句子,它必须和一个 主句连用,不能独立存在。  

 

复合句可以通过把两个以上简单句连接 在一起构成但复合句的各组成部份并非 同等重要, 其中一个句子由从属连词引导(从句),用以修饰另一句子(主句)。 
 

复合句 = 主句 + 从句 
 

复合句是在简单句的基础上,通过从属连词将两个或两个以上简单句连接在一起而构成。从属连词所引导的从句起 形容词、名词、副词的作用。 

 

复合句主要包含以下类型从 句:  

 

1主语从句  

2宾语从句  

3表语从句  

4定语从句  

5状语从句  

6同位语从句 
 

英文写作中最常使用的从句  

 

1宾语从句  

2状语从句  

3定语从句 
 

复合句与简单句:复合句 = 简单句 + 从属连词 +简单句 

12.4 并列句 
 

12.4.1  需把几个意思连接在一起时,可用分号 或把两个或几个简单句用并列连词连接 起来,这种结构即构成一个并列句。 
 

1)用分号:  

We fished all day; we didn’t catch a thing.  

 

2)用分号,后跟一个连接副词:  

We fished all day; however, we didn’t catch a thing.  

 

3)用并列连词( 用并列连词(如and、but、so、yet等)  

We fished all day, but (we) didn’t catch a thing. 
 
12.4.2 常用并列连词 (coordinating conjunctions) 
 
1)平行并列连词: and, both…and, not only…but also, neither…nor, and thenand, both…and, not only…but also, neither…nor, and then 

 

2)转折并列连词: but, however, while, yet but, however, while, yet  

 

3)因果并列连词: for, sofor, so 

 

4)选择并列连词:   or, either…or, neither… nor 
 
12.4.3 并列句的词序 

 

并列句基本上保留了简单句 并列句的词序。 

 

主语 

谓语 

宾语 

连词 

主语 

动词 

表语 

Jimmy 

fell off 

his bike 

but 

(he) 

wasn’t 

hurt. 

五种简单句型可用并列连词连接起来组成并列句。

 

主语 

谓语 

 

连词 

主语 

谓语 

表语 

Frank 

worked 

hard 

and 

(he ) 

became 

an architect. 

 

主语 

谓语 

宾语 

连词 

主语 

谓语 

状语 

I 

’ve got 

a cold, 

so 

I 

’m going 

to bed. 

 

主语 

谓语 

宾语 

宾补 

连词 

主语 

谓语 

 

They 

made 

him 

Chairman, 

but 

(they) 

didn’t increase 

his salary. 

12.2 句子其它成分 

 

12.2.1 独立成分 
句中可以去掉的成分,去掉后不影响句子的完整性。 这种成分和句子的其他词没有语法的关系。  
 
Oh!What is that! 

哦!那是什么!(惊叹词)   

He hasalasfailed again .  

唉,他又失败了。 

Come hereJohn 

来吧,约翰。(呼语)   

Roll onOceanroll on  

翻滚吧,海洋。 
 
 

12.2.2 省略成分 
句中被省略的成分,虽然未说出来,却在句中表示 一定的意思:  
(You) Come here.  

(I wish you)Good luck! 
Some gave him praises,but others(gave him)rotten eggs. gave himrotten eggs  

He runs as fast as, if ( he does ) not ( run ) faster, than you. ( he does ) not ( run ) faster, than you.  

( I ) Hope you like it.  ) Hope you like it.  

John should clean the room today and Peter ( should clean it ) tomorrow. 
clean it ) tomorrow. 
 

12.2.3 连接成分 
连接成分实际上是一个连词, 用来连接两个或几个平行的词、短语和分句。这种连词叫做并列连词。  

另一类连接成分是用来连接两个句子、且一个句子从属于 另一个句子(即从句)的连词。这类连词叫从属连词。从 属连词主要用于引导各种从句。 一个完整的句子(主句或从句)必须包含2个到4个基本成分,此外,如果意思上有需要,还可包含一个或更多其他 的句子成分。  

12.3 简单句 

 

简单句只有一个限定动词(即只有一个主谓结构 ),它是最小的句子单位。主要起下列四种 作用中的一种。  

  • 作一种陈述 

  • 提出一个问题 

  • 发出一种命令或请求 

  • 表示一种感叹 

 

The boy hit the dog. / The dog bit the boy.  

The girl read the books. / The books pleased the girl.  

Stephen apologized at once.  

Does the shop close at 7 tonight?  

Shut the door.  

What a slow train this is! 
 

12.3.1 简单句的五种基本句型 
 

主语 + 不及物动词 ( S + Vi ) 

主语  及物动词 +宾语 ( S + Vt + O)  

主语  系动词   (S + LV + predicative)  

主语+双宾动词 间宾 直宾 +Vt +O.indir+Odir 

主语  宾补动词 +宾语 +宾语补语 ? (S + Vt. + O + O. compl 

There + be / stand/ lie / live... 
 
主语、动词(不及物动词、及物动词、双宾动词、系动词、 宾补动词)、宾语及补语可以称为基本句子成分 基本句子成分。 基本句子成分 完整的句子一般至少包含2个基本成分,至多4个基本成分。 
 
12.3.2 简单句基本句型实例 
 

主语 + 不及物动词  

She came. 

My head aches. .  

 

主语  及物动词  宾语  

She likes English.  

 

主语  系动词  主语补语  

She is happy. 

 

主语  双宾动词  间接宾语  直接宾语  

She gave John a book. 

She bought a book for me.  

 

主语  宾补动词  宾语  宾语补语  

She makes her mother angry 

The teacher asked me to read the passage.  

 

There +be  

There lies a book on the desk. 
 

12.3.3 附属成分 
 

基本成分的修饰语。可以是: 

定语:即用来修饰名词的单词、短语或从句  

状语:即用来修饰名词或代词以外的词的单词、 短语或从句。  
 

1)定语 
Poor John tottered toward a hospital nearby.  

She likes oranges imported from the USA.  

John gave Mary many bookswhich are full of  illustrations   

Have you seen the book on the desk?  

The boy playing over there is my brother.  

People there like sports. 
 

2)状 语 
John often came to chat with me.  

John likes oranges very much  

Whenever he gets drunkJohn makes Mary very angry  

Hearing the news, he jumped with joy.  

As he was ill, he didn’t come to class yesterday.  

She is sitting at the desk, doing her homework.  

My father worked in this school ten years ago.  

You’d better stay here. 
 

12.3.4 简单句的基本词序 
 

主语 

动词部分 (谓语) 

宾语 

状语 方式 地点 时间  

I 

bought 

a hat 

yesterday 

The children 

ran 

 

home. 

The taxi driver 

shouted at 

me 

angrily. 

We 

ate 

our meal 

in silence. 

The car 

stopped 

 

suddenly. 

A young girl 

walked 

 

confidently in the room. 

They 

drove away 

him  

in a police car. 

 

                 

12.3.5 简单句的扩展成份 
 

简单句的主语、宾语可以加上一个短语(如定语)来扩展, 及物动词或不及物动词也可以与其它短语(如状语)连用进行扩展。  
 

I bought a rain coat with a warm lining 

The dog jumped through the window 

He is saving up to buy a mobile phone 

bright little boy with rosy cheeks put three bottles of milk quietly on my doorstep before seven o’clock 

He worked like a madman in the garden on Saturday 

The young girl with long black hair seems to be very happy. 
 

12.3.6   、   、      
 

两个简单句的主语可以连词and、but、both..and either…or、neither…nor、not only…but also等连词连接 组成一个简单句,但应注意主语和谓语动词的一致性。   

 

The boss is flying to Paris. His secretary is flying to Paris.  

The boss and his secretary are flying to Paris.  

Both the boss and his secretary are flying to Paris.  

 

The boss is flying to Rome. His secretary is not flying to Rome.  

The boss but not his secretary is flying to Rome.  

 

The boss may be flying to Berlin. His secretary may be flying to Berlin.  

Either the boss or his secretary is flying to Berlin.  

 

The boss is not flying to York. His secretary isn’t flying to York.  

Neither the boss nor his secretary is flying to York. 
 
两个简单句的宾语可由and、both…and等连词连接组成 一个简单句。  

 

I met Jane. I met her husband.  

I met Jane and her husband.  

I met both Jane and her husband.  

 

It was cold. It was wet.  

It was cold and wet.  

 

I didn’t meet Jane. I didn’t meet her husband.  

I didn’t meet either Jane or her husband.  

I met neither Jane nor her husband.  

 

两个或两个以上限定动词也可合并为一个简单句。  

 

We sang all night. We danced all night.  

We sang and danced all night. 

12.1 句子种类  

 

12.1.1 按使用目的,句子可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。一)按使用目的,句子可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句 

 

1)陈述句(Declarative Sentences):说明一个事实或陈述一种看法。    

Light travels faster than sound. 光比声传播速度快。(说明事实)    说明事实)     

The film is rather boring. 这部电影很乏味。(说明看法)。(说明看法 

 

2)疑问句(Interrogative Sentences):提出问题。有以下四种:   

 

a. 一般疑问句(General Questions):      

 Can you finish the work in time? 你能按时完成工作吗?   

b. 特殊疑问句(Wh-Questions):      

Where do you live? 你住那儿?     

c. 选择疑问句(Alternative Questions):      

Do you want tea or coffee? 你是要茶还是要咖啡?     

d. 反意疑问句(Tag-Questions):      

He doesn't know her, does he? 他不认识她,对不对? 

 

3)祈使句(Imperative Sentences):提出请求,建议或发出命令。    

Don't be nervous! 别紧张! 

 

4)感叹句(Exclamatory Sentences):表示说话人惊奇、喜悦、愤怒等情绪。 

What good news it is! 多好的消息啊! 

 

12.1.2 句子按其结构可以分为以下三类:二)句子按其结构可以分为以下三类 

 

1)简单句(Simple Sentences):只包含一个主谓结构句子叫简单句。 

She is fond of collecting stamps.  她喜欢集邮。 

 

2)并列句(Compound Sentences):包含两个或两个以上主谓结构的句子叫并列句,句与句之间通常用并列连词或分号来连接。     

The food was good, but he had little appetite. 食物很精美,但他却没什么胃口。 

 

3)复合句(Complex Sentences):包含一个主句和一个或几个从句的句子叫复合句,从句由从属连词引导。     

The film had begun when we got to the cinema. 我们到达电影院的时候,电影已经开演了。

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  1. 第十二章 句子概论