10.2 从属连词   

 

从属连词用来引导从句。常见的从属连词有:   

 

(1)引导时间状语从句的after, before, when, while, as, until, till, since, as soon as等。   

(2)引导条件状语从句的ifunless等。   

(3)引导原因状语从句的because, as, since等。  

(4)引导目的状语从句的so that, in order that等。  

(5)引导让步状语从句的though, although, even if等。  

(6)引导结果状语从句的so that, so„thatsuch„that等。 such„that等。  

(7)引导比较状语从句的thanas„as等。  

(8)引导名词从句的that, if , whether等。  

 

10.2.1 引导时间状语的连词:when, while, as, after, before, since, till/until, as soon as, once 一旦   

 

注:引导时间状语从句的连词还有:the minute, the moment, whenever, instantly, immediately, no sooner„than, hardly„when„, scarcely„when. each(every, next, the first)time等。  hardly„when„, scarcely„wheneach(every, next, the first)time等。   

 

I was about to go out when he came in.  

我正要出去时他进来了。   

I was walking on the street when it suddenly began to rain. 

我正在街上走的时候突然下起雨来。   

We should strike while the iron is hot.  

我们应该趁热打铁。   

It will be five years before we meet again.  

5年后我们才能再见面。   

As soon as he got there, he wrote to me.  

他一到那儿,就给我写信。   

Once he said that, I knew he was lying.  

他一那样说,我就知道他在撒谎。   

No sooner had he sat down than the bell rang.  

他刚一坐下铃就响了。    

I finished my homework before I went home.   

在我回家之前我完成了我的家庭作业。   

He arrived after the class started.  

 

when,while,as的区别:   

 

l)when引导的状语从句中谓语动词的动作与主句中谓语动词的动作可同时发生,也可先于或后于发生;从句中的动词既可用延续性动词,也可用短暂性动词。   

 

2)while引导的状语从句中的动词与主句中的动词动作同时发生,从句中一般使用延续性动词,句子多用进行时态。   

He was doing his homework when I came in.  

当我进来时, 他正在做家庭作业。   

I came in when /while he was doing his homework.  

当他做家庭作业时,我走了进来。   

When /while I was in the town, I saw him twice.  

当我在镇上时, 见过他两次。   

 

3)as引导的时间状语从句中的动作与主句中的动作同时发生。as强调“一边„一边„”。  

He hurried to school, looking behind as he went.  

他匆忙的赶往学校,一边走一边回头看。  

 

另外,当when,while,after, before引导的时间状语从句中的主语与主句的主语一致时,这四个词后可直接接动词-ing形式。如:   

 

After spending the weekend in the capital, we took a taxi to the airport.airport. 

在首都度过周末以后,我们就乘出租车到了机场。   

Waste water from a number of factories is now “cleaned”before flowing back into rivers.  cleaned”before flowing back into rivers.   

从许多工厂流出来的废水在流入河流以前就被“净化”了。   

 

10.2.2 引导原因状语的连词:because,as,since,now that, seeing that因为,由于   

 

He didn’t come to school yesterday because he was ill. 

昨天他没来学校是因为他病了。   

As all the seats were full, he stood up.  

由于所有座位上都有人,他就站着。   

Since you have to stay home, why don’t you do some shopping. 

既然你不得不呆在家里,为什么不购物呢?   

Seeing that it’s raining, you’d better stay indoors. 

既然天在下雨,你最好呆在家里。。。 

 

注意:because, so这两个连词同样不能用在同一个句子中。 

我们不能说“Because John  was ill, so I took him to the doctor.”  

这个句子应改为Because John was ill, I took him to the doctor. 

或John was ill, so I took him to the doctor.  

 

because, since, as与for的区别:   

 

l)because引导原因状语从句,表示直接而明确的原因或理由,它的语气最强,它引导的原因状语从句可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后。   

 

2)since和as引导的从句强调结果,不强调原因,它们引导的从句一般放在句首。since比as语气强,表示自然的因果关系,意为“既然”。as表示的原因语气最弱,常用于口语中,讲话人认为某种理由很明显或对方很熟悉,不需要突出。   

 

3)for为并列连词,虽常译为“因为”,语气最弱。但它并不说明一种原因,通常只表示一种补充或附带的解释或说明,或表示一种推理。所以,for引导的句子不能放于句首。  

It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet.  

昨晚一定下雨了,地面是湿的。   

 

4)由于because引导的原因状语从句表示一种直接的原因或理由,所以能够回答why的提问。since, as, for都不能。  

 

5)只有because引导的原因状语从句可以放在强调句型中,成为强调的对象。since,as,for引导的从句不能。  

It is because he is ill that he is absent from school.school. 

正式因为他生病了,所以他没有来学校。   

 

10.2.3 引导条件状语的连词:if, unless, as/so long as  

 

We will stay indoors if it rains tomorrow.  

如果明天下雨我们就呆在家里。   

They will stand by you even if you don’t succeed. 

即使你不会成功,他们也会站在你一边的。   

Don’t touch anything unless your teacher tells you to.to. 

老师不让就别动任何东西。 I am happy as long as you are happy.  

只要你高兴,我就高兴。  

 

注:if条件句中有些词如 it is,he is等可以省略;省略后if后可直接接形容词,过去分词或副词。   

 

If true, this will cause us a lot of trouble.  

如果属实,这会给我们带来许多麻烦。   

An illness can result in total blindness if left untreated.untreated. 

有种病如不治疗会引起失明。   

Are you busy this afternoon? If not, I wish you would stay with me for a while.while. 

下午忙吗?如果不忙,我希望你能和我呆一会儿。  

 

if, whether区别   

if和whether都可作“是否”讲,在引导宾与从句是一般可互换。例如:  

I wonder whether (if) you still study in that school.  

I don’t know whether (if) he likes that film.  在下列情况下,只能用whether,不能用if:  

 

1) 引导主语从句时。例如:   

Whether he will come to the party is unknown.   

2) 引导表语从句时。例如:   

The question is whether I can pass the exam.  

3) 在不定式前。例如:   

I haven’t made up my mind whether to go there or not.   

 

10.2.4 引导地点状语的连词: where, wherever, everywhere, anywhere 

They went wherever they could find jobs.  

他们去任何能找到工作的地方。   

Where there is a will, there is a way.  

有志者,事竟成。   

 

10.2.5 引导目的状语的连词:(so)that,in order that,for fear that唯恐;以免,in case(that)以防,免得   

 

I got up early in the morning so that I could catch the first bus.bus. 

我早晨早早起床以便能赶上第一班公共汽车。   

Here is a pound in case you should need it.  

这里有一英镑以防你要用。   

 

10.2.6 引导结果状语的连词:(so)that,so„thatsuch„thatbut(that)   

 

My pen fell under my desk, so that I couldn’t see it.it.it. 

我的钢笔掉到了桌子下面,所以看不到了。   

George often told stories that weren‘t true, so that no one believed him when he told about a tiger in the school yard.   

乔治经常讲一些不真实的故事,结果当他说校园里有一只老虎时,没人相信他。  

 

so that引导结果状语从句时,so that前一般有逗号。   

so+形容词或副词+that 

so+形容词+a/an+可数名词单数+that 

So+many/few+可数名词复数+that  

So+much/little+不可数名词+that  

  

His English in one of this articles was so good that Engels wrote him a letter  and praised him for it.   letter  and praised him for it.    

他一篇文章中的英语如此之好以至于恩格斯写信赞扬他。  

It was so lovely a day that we went out.  

天气那么好,我们就出去了。    

 

Such that 引导结果状语从句  引导结果状语从句   

such+ a (an)+形容词+可数名词单数+that从句  

such+形容词不可数名词 /可数名词复数+that从句  

  

It was such a hot day that nobody wanted to do anythinganything 

天气这么热,没有人想干活。   

He made such rapid progress that before long he began to write articles in English for an American newspaper.newspaper. 

他取得了如此快的进步,不久他就开始用英语为一份美国报纸写文章。   

 

4)such与one,no等词一起修饰名词时,这些词放在such前面。即   one, no, any, all, many, some, several„+such+单数或复数可数名词   

Once in the examination hall all such trivialities were forgotten.  

一进考场,所有这样的小事全都忘了。   

There is a grave necessity for more such activities.activities. 

多进行这样的活动是很必要的。   

 

10.2.7 引导比较状语的连词:than,as„as,not as „as, the 比较极„the 比较极  7)引导比较状语的连词:than,as„as,not as „as, the 比较极„the 比较极   

 

He can speak English as well as a foreigner.   

他讲英语和外国人一样好。 

The longer you stay with him, the better you will know him. 

和他在一起呆的时间越长,你就会越了解他。   

 

10.2.8 引导让步状语的连词: though,although, as, even though, even if, whether„or„however, whatever, whoever, no matter how/ what/ which„  8)引导让步状语的连词: though,although, as, even though, even if, whether„or„however, whatever, whoever, no matter how/ what/ which„   

 

Though I prefer a colour TV, I have decided to buy a black and white one this time. I prefer a colour TV, I have decided to buy a black and white one this time. 

虽然我喜欢彩电,但我决定这次买一台黑白的。   

Proud as these nobles are, he is afraid to see me.me. 

尽管这些贵族很自负,但他还是很怕见我。   

They will play the game even if it rains hard tomorrow.  

那怕明天下大雨,他们也会进行比赛的。   

No matter what happened, he would not mind. =whatever happened, he would not  

Mind. 

不管发生什么, 他都不会介意。   

 

though=although(语气强) even though=even if   

though或although和but不能同时在句中出现;但和yet可同时出现在一个句子中。  

 

10.2.9 引导方式状语从句的连词,as正如, as if/though似乎好像 引导方式状语从句的连词,as正如, as if/though似乎, 好像  

 

He speaks English as if he were an English-man.  

他讲起英语来就像是英国人似的。  

Use a book as a bee does a flower.  

像蜜蜂利用花一样去利用书籍吧。 

10.1 并列连词   

 

并列连词用来连接具有并列关系的词,短语或句子。常见的并列连词有:  

(1)表并列关系的and, both, and, not only, but also, neither, nor等。  

(2)表选择关系的or, either, or等。  

(3)表转折关系的butwhile等。  

(4)表因果关系的forso等。  

 

10.1.1 并列连词   

 

1) 表并列的连词: and, both, and, not only, but(also),as well as   

Study hard and you will make progress with your English. 

努力学习,你的英语就会进步的。   

The boy can speak both Chinese and English.  

那个男孩既会说汉语也会说英语。   

Not only did he speak more correctly, but(also)he spoke more easily.  

他不仅说得很正确,而且说得很轻松。   

I have read one of his novels as well as a few of his plays. 

我读过他的一本小说和一些剧本。   

 

当 not only, but(also)连接两个名词作主语时, 谓语采用就近原则;当 no only, but(also)连接两个并列的句子时,not only, but(also)中间的句子用倒装。As well as连接两个名词作主语时,谓语采用就远原则。  

 

2)表转折的连词:but,yet, however, while   

This TV set is more expensive, but gives you a better picture.  

这台电视机虽然贵些,但图像比较好。   

I haven’t had any success so far. However, I’ll keep trying. 

到现在为止我还没有成功,但是,我会继续试下去的。   

He is short, while his brother is tall.  

他矮但是他的哥哥高。   

 

3)表因果关系的连词:for,so,then, thus, therefore   

You’d better put on your sweater, for it’s rather cold outside. 

你最好穿上毛衣,外边很冷。   

My sister is expecting me, so I must be off.  

我姐姐在等我,我必须走了。   

He was busy, therefore, he could not came 

他忙,所以不能来。   

He studies hard, thus he got a full mark.  

他很用功,因而得了满分。   

His car broke down, thus ha was late for work.  

他的车坏了,因此他上班迟到了。  

 

4) 表选择关系连词   

 

(1)either„or不是„就是,neither„nor既不„也不,or或者, otherwise 要不然or else否则,rather than 也不   

John or I am to blame.  

不是约翰就是我改受责备。 

 

Study hard,or/otherwise you will fail the exam· =If you don’t study hard, you will fail the exam.  

努力学习,否则你会不及格的。   

He went rather than stay as an unwelcome guest.  

她走了,不愿做个不受欢迎的客人。   

Neither the teacher nor the students know how to deal with it.  

老师和同学们都不知道怎样处理这件事。   

She is returning to Xi’an either today or tomorrow.tomorrow. 

她不是今天回西安就是明天回西安。   

 

(2)either„or和 neither„nor连接两个并列主语时,谓语采用就近原则。nor和neither都可放于句首表省略,意为‘也不”。nor前可用逗号,分号;而neither前需要分号,句号或and。 

 

Neither I nor my father works here.  

我和我爸爸都不在这里工作。   

We own no money, and neither do they.  

我们没有钱,他们也没有。  

 

(3)no„but不是„而是   

King called for the blacks not to give up but to continue the struggle.  called for the blacks not to give up but to continue the struggle.  

金号召黑人不要放弃,而要继续斗争。   

They are not on the playground but in the classroom.classroom. 

他们不在操场,而是在教室。   

 

(4)either„or„, neither„nor, not only„but also„  only„but also„   

这三个连词词组都可连接两个并列成分。当它们连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词要随相邻的主语变化。   

Either you or he is wrong.   

要么你或要么他错了。 

Neither he nor his children like fish.    

他和他的孩子都不喜欢鱼。 

Not only the teacher but also the students want to buy the book.  

不仅老师,而且学生都想买这本书。

第十章 连词

用来连接词,短语,从句或句子的词叫连词。连词是一种虚词,在句中不能单独使用。连词可分为两类:并列连词和从属连词。  

 

 

10.1 并列连词   

 

10.2 从属连词