8.3 副词的比较级和最高级 

 

8.3.1有些副词和形容词一样也有比较级和最高级例如 
He works hard. 他工作努力。 
You work harder than him. 你工作比他努力。 
She works (the)hardest of a11. 她工作最努力。 

 

8.3.2 副词的比较级和最高级大多以加moremost的方式构成(多音节词和大部分双音节词): 

 

原级 

比较级 

最高级 

successfully 

more 

successfully 

happily 

more 

happily 

carefully 

more 

Carefully 

 

 

少数单音节副词(quickfastslow)early,以加-er-est的方式构成: 

 

原级 

比较级 

最高级 

quick 

quicker 

quickest 

fast 

faster 

fastest 

early 

earlier 

earliest 

 

8.3.3 副词的比较级和最高级还有少数不规则的形式: 

 

原级 

比较级 

最高级 

well 

better 

best 

badly 

worse 

worst 

much 

more 

most 

little 

less 

least 

far 

farther(further) 

farthest(furthest) 

 

8.3.4 副词比较级的用法 
和形容词一样,用副词比较级时也多带than引起的从句,表示和什么相比: 
She gets to work earlier than the others. 
她上班比别人都早。 
I liked the first item better than the second one. 
第一个节目比第二个节目我更喜欢些。 
It rains more often in Shanghai than in Beijing. 
上海比北京更常下雨。 
He behaved even worse than usual. 
他比平时表现更糟。 

 

8.3.5 副词的比较级有时也可以不跟than引起的从句: 
Write more carefully next time. 
下一次写得再仔细点。 
Try to work faster. 
想法子干得再快一点。 

 

8.3.6 同级比较:as(so)...as结构 
在表示“和……一样……”时,也可用as(so)...as(前面的asso后要用原级)。肯定句(或疑问句)中都用as...as结构(a),否定句中用as…asso…as都可以(b): 
 

1)He could speak English as fluently as an Englishman. 
他英语说得和英国人一样流利。 
She loved him as much as her own child. 
她爱他像爱她自己孩子一样深。 
We must arrange everything as well as we can. 
我们要把一切尽量安排好。 

 

2)I can’t run so(as)fast as Betty. 
我跑得没有贝蒂快。 
I didn’t do my work as (so)well as I should. 
我的工作没干得我应干的那么好。 
She didn’t sing as(so)well as she usually does. 
她唱得没平常那样好。 

这种结构中也可用一个表示程度的状语: 
I dont speak English half so well as you do 
我的英文讲得不及你一半好。 
I can run ten times as fast as you.”said the hare 
野兔说,“我可以跑得比你快十倍。” 

 

8.3.7 副词最高级的用法: 
在用副词最高级时,多跟一短语说明比较的范围: 
Of all his novels,I like this one best. 
在他所有小说中我最喜炊这一本。 
Among the three girls.she works the hardest. 
三个姑娘中她最用功。 
Who can throw it farthest? 
谁能把它扔得最远? 
Let’s see who sings best. 
咱们看谁唱得最好。 

 

副词最高级前定冠词可以省略,大部分情况都不用定冠词。

8.2 副词的句法功能  

副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其他结构。  

 

8.2.1 用作状语   

Look at the photo carefully. 仔细看看这张照片。  

You’re driving too fast. 你开车开得太快了。   

 

8.2.2 用作表语   

The meeting is over. 会议结束了。  

Is anyone upstairs? 楼上有人吗?  

Is the radio on or off? 收音机是开着的还是关着的?   

 

在通常情况下,用作表语时不用副词而用形容词。   

 

如可说The woman is beautiful. 而不说 The woman is beautifully.  

可说The cloth feels soft. 不能说 The cloth feels softly.    

 

英语中用作表语的副词主要是表地点的副词以及某些与介词同形的副词,而且只能用于连系动词be 作表语,而不用于其他连系动词后作表语,如可说He is here 或 He is abroad,但不能说He seems here 或 He seems abroad。  

 

8.2.3 用作宾语   

It’s hot in here. 这里面很热。   

It’s not far from here. 从这儿去不远。   

I’ll stay at home tonight. 今晚我将呆在家里。   

 

 

副词用作宾语的用法十分有限,通常只用作介词宾语,并且只限于某些表示时间和地点的副词,而且不同的副词有不同的搭配特点,如 here和there 可与along, around, down, from, in, near, round, up 等介词连用,但通常不与介词to连用,如不说come to here, go to there 等(注:from here to there是例外),而表地点的副词abroad 则只与介词from连用,不与其他介词连用。  

 

8.2.4 用作宾语补足语   

1) Ask him in, please. 请叫他进来。   

2) We must try to help him through. 我们必须设法帮他渡过难关。  

3) Sorry to have kept you up so late. 对不起,让你这么晚不能睡觉。  

 

 

一般说来,能用作表语的副词都可用作宾语补足语:   

He went to see her but found that she was out. 他去看她,但发现她不在家。  

He went to see her but found her out. 他去看她,但发现她不在家。  

 

8.2.5 用作定语   

1) The people there were very friendly. 那儿的人很友好。  

2) Do you know the people downstairs? 你认识楼下的人吗?  

3) The shops around are very cheap. 附近商店的东西很便宜。   

 

 

在通常情况下,副词用作定语总是放在被修饰名词之后,若置于修饰名词之前,则通常被视为形容词,如the upstairs room和the room upstairs 都表示楼上的房间”,但前者的upstairs 前置,为形容词;后者的upstairs后置,为副词;又如the above passage 和the passage above都可表示上面的段落”,但前者的above 前置,为形容词;后者的above后置,为副词 

第八章 副词

8.1 副词分类 

8.2 副词的句法功能

8.3 副词的比较级和最高级 

8.1 副词分类 

 

8.1.1 时间副词 

   

1常见的时间副词 

常见的时间副词有now, then, soon, ago, recently, lately, later, finally, before, early, today tomorrow, yesterday, tonight, suddenly, immediately, already, just 等。 

   

2时间副词在句中的位置 

   

(1) 表确定时间的副词(如todayyesterday等)通常位于句末,有时也位于句首 

He went home yesterday. / Yesterday he went home. 他昨天回家了 

   

而那些表示非确定时间的副词(如 soon, recently, suddenly等)除可用于句末或句首外,还可位于句中(通常位于实意动词之前,动词be、助动词、情态动词之后): 

He went to Paris recently. / He recently went to Paris. / Recently he went to Paris.  

最近他去了巴黎 

   

(2) still, already, just 等几个表示时间的副词通常位于句中(实意动词之前,动词be、助动词、情态动词之后): 

He’s just left for school. 他刚刚去学校 

I have already finished my work. 我已经做完了工作 

   

当要表示强调时,still和already也可位于动词be、助动词等之前: 

 

She was still [still was] beautiful at the age of forty. 她到了40岁仍然很美。 

I already have told him about it. 我已经把情况告诉他了 

   

Still若用于否定句,则总是位于助动词之前 

 

I still don’t understand what you mean. 我还是不明白你的意思 

   

另外,still 和already 还可位于句末,表示惊奇: 

 

Are you on page one still? 你还在看第1页? 

Is your mother back already? 你妈妈就已经回来了 

   

8.1.2 地点副词 

   

1常见的地点副词 

常见的地点副词有here, there, up, down, away, nearby, home, ahead, abroad, indoors, overseas, halfway, upstairs, downstairs 等。 

   

2地点副词在句中的位置 

地点副词在句中通常位于句末或句首,但从不位于主语和谓语之间。若有多个副词排列,地点副词通常位于方式副词之后,时间副词之前: 

Can you help to carry this table upstairs? 你能帮忙把桌子搬到楼上去吗? 

The boy read quietly over there all afternoon. 这男孩整个下午都在那儿静静地看书 

   

8.1.3 方式副词 

   

1方式副词的特点 

方式副词表示动词的行为方式,许多以-ly结构的副词都是方式副词,如carefully, happily, quietly, heavily, warmly, correctly, politely, angrily 等。 

   

2方式副词在句中的位置 

   

(1) 方式副词通常位于动词(及其宾语)之后 

He read the letter slowly. 他从容不迫地看了那封信 

   

方式副词通常不位于动词与宾语之间,除非动词后的宾语很长: 

不可说:We like very much it. (应改为We like it very much.) 

但可说:We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us.  

我们可以很清楚地看到在我们前方有一道奇怪的光。 

   

若遇到“动词+介词+宾语”结构,方式副词既可位于“介词+宾语”之前,也可位于“介词+宾语”之后,但是若该结构的宾语较长,则方式副词通常位于“介词+宾语”之前: 

He looked at me curiously. / He looked curiously at me.  

他好奇地打量着我 

He looked curiously at everyone who got off the plane.  

他好奇地打量着从飞机上走下来的每一个人 

   

(2) 方式副词(主要是单个的方式副词)有时也可位于主语与动词之间 

He quickly got dressed. 他赶紧穿好衣服 

He angrily tore up the letter. 他很生气,把信撕碎了 

   

(3) 有的方式副词(如bravely, cleverly, cruelly, foolishly, generously, kindly, secretly, simply等)位于动词之前和位于句末会导致句子意思的变化 

They secretly decided to leave the town. 他们秘密决定离开这个城市 

They decided to leave the town secretly. 他们决定秘密地离开这个城市 

He answered the questions foolishly. 他对这个问题作了愚蠢的回答 

He foolishly answered the questions. 他愚蠢地回答了这个问题 

   

(4) 有的方式副词(如gently, quietly, slowly, suddenly 等)有时可位于句首,以达到某种戏剧性的效果(这主要见于书面语中): 

Suddenly, the driver started the engine. 突然地,司机启动了发动机 

   

8.1.4 频度副词 

   

1频度副词的特点 

频度副词表示动作发生的次数,常见有的ever, never, rarely, seldom, once, often, occasionally, constantly, frequently, usually, continually, always 等。 

   

2频度副词在句中的位置 

频度副词通常位于实意动词之前,动词be、助动词、情态动词之后: 

He often comes to see us. 他常来看我们 

He is seldom late for school. 他上学很少迟到 

   

有时为了强调,频度副词也可位于动词be、助动词等之前: 

She always was late. 她老是迟到 

   

有的频度副词可位于句末(尤其受very, only修饰时): 

I get paid on Fridays usually. 我通常在星期五领工资 

We go out very seldom. 我们很少外出 

Do you go to the cinema very often? 你常去看电影吗? 

   

有的频度副词(如sometimes, often, usually, frequently, occasionally等)可位于句首(此时多半是因为强调或对比): 

Sometimes he went there by bus. 有时他坐公共汽车去那儿 

Very often the phone rings when I’m in the bath. 电话经常在我洗澡时响 

 

 

含有否定意义的频度副词置于句首时,其后要用倒装语序: 

Never have I been there. 我从未去过那儿 

Seldom does he see a film. 他很少看电影 

   

另外,频度副词always 和 never通常不位于句首,除非是祈使句: 

Always remember this. 时刻记住这一点 

Never go out at night. 晚上千万不要出去 

 

3频度副词在否定句中的位置 

在否定句中,有的频度副词可位于否定词not之后或之前(如usually, often),有的频度副词则必须位于否定词之后(如always, constantly, continually, continuously,均含有“连续不断”之意),而有的频度副词却必须要位于否定词not之前(如sometimes, frequently): 

He doesn’t usually come here. / He usually doesn’t come here. 他通常不来这儿 

She doesn’t always come late. 她并非总是迟到。(不能说 always doesn’t) 

He is sometimes not responsible for what he does. 他有时对所做的事不负责任 

   

8.1.5 程度副词 

   

1程度副词的特点 

程度副词用于表示程度,常见的有 fairly, pretty, rather, quite, very, much, too, greatly, almost, nearly, half, highly, awfully, deeply, partly, perfectly, really 等。 

   

2程度副词的用法注意点 

 

(1) 程度副词主要用于修饰形容词和副词,有的还可修饰比较级(如much, rather 等)和最高级(如quite, much, almost 等): 

Houses are much more expensive these days. 如今的房价贵多了 

This is quite [much] the most expensive radio here. 这是这里最贵的收音机 

 

 

quite 有时也修饰比较级,但只用于quite better(身体康复)这一表达。 

 

(2) 有的程度副词(如quite, rather, almost等)可修饰动词,但有的(如fairly, pretty, very等)则不能修饰动词 

I quite agree with you. 我完全同意你的意见。(不用fairly, pretty, very) 

We rather like the film. 我们很喜欢这部电影。(不用fairly, pretty, very) 

   

(3) 个别的程度副词(主要是quite和rather)还可修饰名词(注意词序): 

It’s quite [rather] a good idea. / It’s a quite [rather] good idea. 那可真是个好主意 

 

若此结构中没有形容词,则 quite 和 rather 则只能放在冠词之前: 

It was quite [rather] a success. 那事相当成功 

   

8.1.6 连接副词 

 

1连接副词的分类 

连接副词可分为两类,一类是用于连接句子或从句,常见的有therefore, besides, otherwise, however, moreover, still, thus, meanwhile等;另一类是用于引导从句或不定式,主要的有when, why, where, how 等。 

   

2连接句子或从句的连接副词 

其性质类似于并列连词,使用时其前通常用分号或句号;若其前用逗号,则通常带有并列连词(如and): 

I don’t like it; besides, it’s too expensive. 我不喜欢它,而且也太贵了 

We all tried our best; however, we lost the game. / We all tried our best. However, we lost the game. 我们都已尽了最大的努力,不过我们还是输了 

   

注意,有的连接副词(如however等)后通常有逗号与句子的其他成分隔开。另外,这类副词有的还可位于句中或句末: 

He may, however, come later.  

不过,他也许一会儿就到 

We all tried out best. We lost the game, however.  

我们都已尽了最大的努力,不过我们还是输了 

Peter is our youngest child, and we have three others besides.  

彼特是我们最小的孩子,我们另外还有三个 

   

3引导从句和不定式的连接副词 

用于引导从句(名词性从句)或不定式的连接副词主要有when, why, where, how等: 

Tell me when we shall leave. / Tell me when to leave.  

告诉我什么时候离开 

I don’t know how I can find him. / I don’t know how to find him.  

我不知道如何找到他 

Where we can get the money is just our problem. / Where to get the money is just our problem.  

到哪里去弄这笔钱正是我们头痛的事 

That’s why he speaks English so well.  

那就是他为什么英语讲得这么好的原因 

   

连接副词why 后不能接不定式,如可说 I don’t know why I must leave.(我不知道我为什么必须离开),但不能说 I don’t know why to leave。 

   

8.1.7 关系副词 

   

1关系副词的特点 

关系副词用于引出定语从句,主要有when, where, why: 

Sunday is the day when very few people go to work. 星期日是没什么人上班的日子 

That’s the reason why he dislikes me. 这就是他不喜欢我的原因 

Do you know a shop where I can find sandals? 你知道哪家商店我能找到凉鞋吗 

 

 

关系副词用于引出定语从句,且在从句中用作状语。关系副词when 表示时间,where表示地点,why表示原因。 

   

2使用关系副词的注意点 

   

(1) how 不能用作关系副词,不要想当然地将how用作关系副词置于the way 后表示方式 

他说话就是那个样子。 

误:This is the way how he spoke. 

正:This is how he spoke. / This is the way (that, in which) he spoke. 

   

(2) 关系副词when和where既可引导限制性定语从句,也可引导非限制性定语从句,但why只能引导限制性定语从句,不能引导非限制性定语从句(若引导非限制性定语从句,可用for which reason)。 

   

(3) 引导定语从句时,when 的先行词为时间,where的先行词为地点,why的先行词为原因(主要是the reason),但是反过来却不一定 

Don’t forget the time (that) I’ve told you. 不要忘记我告诉你的时间 

This is the house (that) he bought recently. 这就是他最近买的那座房子 

Please tell me the reason (that) you know. 请告诉我你所知道的原因吧 

   

8.1.8 疑问副词 

   

1疑问副词的特点 

疑问副词有when, where, why, how 等,用于引出特殊疑问句: 

Where do you come from? 你是哪里人 

When will it be ready? 这什么时候能准备好 

Why was she crying? 她刚才为什么哭 

   

2两类易混句型的区别。请看以下两句 

Where do you think he has gone? 你认为他去什么地方了 

Do you know when he will come? 你知道他什么时候来吗 

   

上面第一句为特殊疑问句,第二句为一般疑问句,它们不能倒过来说成Do you think where he has gone? When do you know he will come? 其区别是:可以用 yes 或 no 回答者,用一般疑问句的形式(疑问词放在句中,即主句之后),适合这类句型的主句动词通常有 know, hear, ask, tell 等;不能用 yes 或 no 回答者,用特殊疑问句的形式(疑问词放在句首),适合这类句型的主句动词通常有 think, believe, suppose, guess 等。 

   

3使用疑问副词的注意点 

   

(1) 疑问副词用于引导特殊疑问句,通常位于句首,但有时也不一定 

Without friends where are we? 没有朋友我们会怎样 

   

(2) 疑问副词引导特殊疑问句时,其后应接一般疑问句,但有时可有所省略 

Why argue with him? 为什么要与跟他争吵 

Why not ask the teacher? / Why don’t you ask the teacher? 为什么不问问老师呢 

   

 

Why 或Why not后接动词原形,不接带to不定式,主要用于现在或将来,不用于过去,如不说 why not tell me yesterday?应改为Why didn’t you tell me yesterday?(昨天为什么不告诉我?) 

   

(3) 有时两个疑问副词连用 

When and where were you born? 你生于何时何地 

   

8.1.9 句子副词 

   

1句子副词的特点 

句子副词用于修饰句子(而不是修饰某个单词),反映说话人的观点和看法,如 actually, certainly, clearly, definitely, evidently, fortunately, frankly, honestly, luckily, obviously, perhaps, possibly, probably, surely, undoubtedly, unexpectedly 等。 

   

2句子副词在句中的位置 

句子副词通常位于句首(或分句句首): 

Obviously he can’t tell the difference between them. 显然他无法区别两者的不同 

I arrived late but luckily the meeting had been delayed. 我迟到了,幸而会议推迟了 

   

但有些句子副词也可以出现在句中: 

He smiled nastily. He evidently knew something I didn’t.  

他发出狞笑,他显然知道一些我所不知道的事 

   

有的句子副词也可用作其他种类的副词,不过这往往会导致位置和语义的变化: 

Clearly he didn’t say so. 显然他没有这样说。(句子副词) 

He didn’t say so clearly. 他说得没有那么清楚。(方式副词) 

Frankly, you are wrong. 说实在的,你错了。(句子副词) 

He spoke frankly about his past life. 他坦率地谈了他过去的生活。(方式副词)